Tuesday, December 24, 2019

African Americans And Black Crime - 1462 Words

A challenge I think African Americans families face in the 21st century is black on black crime. Just recently in the Brown vs Ferguson case African Americans properties were destroyed, vandalize, and burned after the verdict of officer Wilson not being indicted. I thought instead of the African Americans going against each other they should have showed more respect and honor for each other. The Micheal Brown case was a tragic loss to the black community, especially after the lost of Trayvon Martin having the same verdict. African Americans as a whole could have shown a little more of a positive response to each other. Black on black crime that occurs when the poorest, weakest members of a population turn on each other out of desperation. African Americans come against peers and neighborhoods who are black. African Americans are the number one race in America by a percentage of 49% of crime within each other, followed by American Indians. Today African Americans are about 13 perce nt of the population and continue to be responsible for an inordinate amount of crime. The black arrest rate for most offenses; include robbery, aggravated assault and property crimes as you seen in recent justice cases such as Brown and Trayvon. Black on black crime has been a part of the American lexicon for years(Bain Friends, 2000). The willingness of so many black Americans to kill and hurt one another by not being able to see each other as a family, despite common past and present. TheShow MoreRelatedRace And Punishment : Racial Perceptions Of Crime And Support For Punitive Policies1308 Words   |  6 Pagesof Crime and Support for Punitive Policies, which is about her study of police shootings disproportionately affecting African American and how media coverage shows racial bias against African American. 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Of the 7,624 hate crimes committed in 2007 aloneRead MoreEssay about Black on Black Crime928 Words   |  4 PagesBlack on black violence is an enormous problem in the African-American community. Living in a neighborhood that is mostly minority, many may have witnessed a lot of black on black violence. The black on black violence has continued to arise in many communities and continues to be a problem around the world. Black on black violence is ignorant, and many black Americans should be coming together instead of killing one another. African-Americans people should be helping each other achieve in the worldRead MoreRacial Discrimination And The Criminal Justice System1512 Words   |   7 Pagesbe true. Research and evidence validate the issue of racism to be undeniable. Equality and justice are out of reach with the racism that takes place in our criminal justice system and our country. 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African Americans have suffered oppression through social institution through factors such as Segregation, Racial Crimination, and Mass incarnation. The constraint of segregation was a way of social, political, and economical controlRead MoreIn Steve Chapman’S Article â€Å"Are Blacks To Blame For Cops1515 Words   |  7 Pagesarticle â€Å"Are Blacks to Blame for Cops Actions?† the author addresses the most important controversial problem we had for centuries. Does racial profiling exists? If so, what is the problem with it? Many say that law enforcement are only targeting the minority, to be specific mainly African Americans. This is because they are the only ones to blame and that if they were not committing so much crime, they wouldn t get so much attention from police(502). The author points out that blaming the black communityRead MoreThe Other Wes Moore : A Story Of Two Boys Growing Up1001 Words   |  5 Pagesassumed they were going to commit a crime. Is this because of prior history? Yes, but there are many other factors involved. Such as appearance, demeanor, stereotypes and most importantly race. Theses all play a role in who the police determine to be criminal. In the African-American population of the United States racial disparities among the law-enforcement create many issues. Particularly, why do police officers in the United States target young black males at a higher rate than young whiteRead MoreCriminal Involvement Of The United States932 Words   |  4 Pagesimportant question, why do we always connect crimes with race? Crutchfield states â€Å"When race is not the focus, differences in ethnicity, religion, immigration status, or some other marker of being â€Å"the other† are part of how we think about and talk about crime† (2). Crutchfield proposes that we continually seek â€Å"out† groups to ostracize and blame crime on. Out groups when blamed for crime, it is attributed to interiority or social class. We often attribute crimes (those of property and violence) to those

Sunday, December 15, 2019

American Indian Hist Free Essays

The question of what motivates people more when they act – cultural priorities, such as religion or tradition, or the so-called â€Å"rational† motivations, such as economics and politics – has been one long debated on. This debate has been quite fierce, members of both sides providing valid and powerful arguments to support their claims. One of the focal points for this discussion are the people known under the blanket term â€Å"Native Americans†. We will write a custom essay sample on American Indian Hist or any similar topic only for you Order Now Where did their motivations stem from? Was it merely pragmatism, a wish to get the most out of any outsiders? Or was culture and tradition vital to decision making? It is doubtless that both of these factors were present, however, the question is, which was the initial factor of influence, dominating thought and action. Scholars have attempted to prove points both ways. I support the side which claims that culture was the primary factor. I shall first provide counter-arguments to the opposing side, then provide supporting arguments for my own claim. First, however, it must be noted that Native Americans is a very catchall term, which is used for lack of a better one. As the website of the Native American research center states, â€Å"It must be emphasized that no one person speaks for Indian People. There are nearly three hundred distinct American Indian Nations in the present United States. Each has its own language and history, its own sacred places and rituals. Each is rooted in and part of the land out of which it grew. â€Å" There are dozens of tribes, including some that are officially considered extinct now, that had quite different customs. If we say that there were Native Americans and they had one kind of culture and, as a consequence, had the same customs, we may just as well say that there are Europeans and they have one culture, completely losing the obvious distinctions between different nations. The cultures of different tribes of Native Americans are very different – to deny this would be to unjustly diminish their cultural value – and yet there are cultural tendencies, and there are exceptions. I will attempt to prove that the tendency is to use tradition as a guideline, and the occasions where â€Å"pragmatical† reasons have been primary are the exceptions verifying the rule. First I shall examine the political argument. It seems very difficult to think that â€Å"politics† in the sense that we understand them now had an influence on the Native Americans. When we think of â€Å"politics† we think of diplomatic traditions, of treaties that are made to be broken, of backstabbing. This, however, was not the dominant case with Native Americans. As Dee Brown wrote in his book â€Å"Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee†, â€Å"So tractable, so peaceable, are these people,’ Columbus wrote to the King and Queen of Spain [referring to the Tainos on the island of San Salvador, so was named by Columbus], ‘that I swear to your Majesties there is not in the world a better nation. They love their neighbors as themselves, and their discourse is ever sweet and gentle, and accompanied with a smile; and though it is true that they are naked, yet their manners are decorous and praiseworthy. † This was verified a number of times by other observations, Columbus’s report being merely the most famous occasion. Time after time, the settlers used the same tactic. While officially recognizing the natives as owners of the land, they used any tactic possible to get them to sell the land, up to getting the chief of the tribe drunk. Then, once the treaty – which usually went along the lines of â€Å"There are white men on your lands now anyway, but give us a part of your land, and we will not go on your land without your permission. † – was signed, in a few years the expansion continued in the same manner, and new treaties were signed. Despite these circumstances, there have been virtually no instances of the treaties between the Indians and the Europeans being broken by the Indians – however, Europeans were breaking these treaties constantly, in 99% of the cases! One would think that if politics were the defining factor in the Native American’s way of dealing they would have changed their tactic after the first few times these treaties were broken – they were not fools, and hundreds of years of such tactics would have destroyed even the most saintly naivete. So the conclusion must be that there was something more than mere hope that the white men would see reason standing behind these promises that forced the Native Americans to keep them. The next common choice for primary motivation is economics. However, despite the fact that the Indians had private property and were no strangers to trade, this could hardly be the dominating motivation. First of all, the Indians were completely self-supporting. Even if they did require something essential they could not produce themselves – which was fairly rare – other Native American tribes generally proved much better business partners, generally being more honest than the Europeans. Consequentially, all the Europeans could offer them were luxuries. This, naturally, should not be underestimated as a lure in any way. However, a trade which truly entails only luxuries is always small by necessity. In any case, trade relationships were not nearly so large-scale as in the Old World. They could not have been the driving motivation Also, we have numerous documents that detail the interaction between Native Americans and European settlers. The initial reply to the abovementioned land-selling treaties was nearly always quite similar. For instance, an excerpt from the 1752 Abenaki Conference between Captain Phineas Stevens and the St. Francis Indians shows the Indian’s attitude to these treaties: â€Å"4 – But we will not cede one single inch of the lands we inhabit beyond what has been decided formerly by our fathers. 5 – You have the sea for your share from the place where you reside; you can trade there; but we expressly forbid you to kill a single Beaver, or to take a single stick of timber on the lands we inhabit; if you want timber we’ll sell you some, but you shall not take it without our permission. † And there exists a number of other documents revealing a similar attitude. Could this, in truth, only be showing that the Indians merely wanted a better deal? One could naturally gain a leeway in trade by keeping the land and selling its resources. However, it is a basic law of economics that one wishing to trade must meet the demand. Had this trade in itself been a factor of dire importance to the Indians, they would have put forth an effort to convince the Europeans that trading would prove profitable. However, the attitude that prevails in documents is one of indifference. It seems like the Indians did not care for the presence of Europeans. If the white men wished a trade, then they would get a trade. If they did not, the Indians seemed perfectly content to let them live without making any more contact than absolutely necessary. Trade was not of importance – it influenced the relationship between the natives and settlers when it was present, but it was by no means the most important factor. On the other hand, tradition and culture was of extreme importance, influencing entire tribe’s behaviors – especially such a part of culture as religion. For Native Americans religion was of utmost importance. Even the Canadian Jesuit missionaries remarked that the Native Americans were highly religious – and not in the â€Å"Sunday Christian† sense, either, but with deep roots and a great influence of every aspect of their lives. This is a characteristic feature of most tribal societies, where little distinction is made between the sacral and the mundane. However, for Indians religion had special relevance, as it was one of the things that allowed them to cling on to their cultural identity, saving them from assimilation. Yet even before this was a relevant factor, religion permeated nearly every aspect of Native American life. Their religion was (and remains) one of pure personal experience, not leaving any room for dogma. The Native American worldview is mythological. For all practical purposes, this means that religious factors such as hunting rituals and their theoretical results are the perceived as being absolutely as physically real as an arrow fired into an animal, having the same kind of cause-and-effect that a physical event might. A deal with a spirit, for instance, is treated as seriously as a treaty with a human. A spirit’s warning was heeded as much as a human’s would, with absolutely the same kind of discretion. And magical means of solving problems were taken as absolutely valid. One of the most well known incidents was in 1876, before the battle at Little-Big-Horn when the famed Sitting Bull performed a three-day shamanic ritual to decide what to do with the white men, staring at the sun and wounding himself until he fell unconscious. After he came to, he announced that the white men were there for the Indians to take, because he saw white men fall into the Indian’s camp headfirst, losing their hats, meaning they would be the killed by the Indians. Also he announced that â€Å"They had no ears†, i. e. they were deaf to reason, giving the Indians a moral right to attack. This is not the only incidence of religion influencing political activity. The Ghost Dance religion can be cited as another famous example, showing how Native American religion changed with the times, how it adapted to the flow of time and adopted alien cultural notions and yet survived without losing all of its cultural value, keeping the spirit, though changing the form. One might say that this lack of dissemination between regular life and religious life simply brings more factors into the political games. Religious leaders are used as figure heads for power play, and spirits are dealt with in the same manner humans are dealt with – if, indeed, the shamans who contact the spirits even believe in them and not use them as a means of their own power and control! This is, however, hardly the case, as there are numerous arguments against this position in the study of tribal societies as a whole. Firstly, their religion was always very personal. Every single Indian had their own religious experience and, as with any religion that requires its neophytes to work out their own niche – clergy being needed only in extreme cases – it is always very strong. The strength of this experience makes it difficult to give anything that is lower than it is a higher priority. The Native Americans did not believe in their gods watching over them – they knew the gods were there as much as they knew that their teepee was still standing. And while white men were considered a temporary nuisance, guests or invaders at best, and were treated that way, the gods were almost like family, and treated with necessary respect and given due priority. Second, as the phenomenon of the Ghost Dance shows, the acts done out of religion were not necessarily the wisest politically – such as the sending out of search parties to look for the Messiah said to be an incarnation of Jesus, and this at the time when men were crucial to survival – so faking divine inspiration for political power is ruled out. So, if the leaders genuinely believed in what they saw, the fate of hundreds and thousands rested within religion – more than enough to define it as one of the crucial influencing factors. It can be seen that politics and trade simply not as much of an influence on life, while religious and cultural activity was always extremely important, guiding the life of every Indian to a certain extent. This was the source of much misunderstanding, since for Europeans politics often took the leading role when religion failed to provide the necessary support and guidance. This made both sides misinterpret the others’ actions, resulting in a long and bloody war that spanned generations. The Native Americans also had also led wars between each other in the past; they were no strangers to military tactics. However, their wars had rules – ones that the settlers naturally broke, thus spelling defeat for the natives. This also shows just how big a role does tradition play in Native American society – had they adapted to the way of war which the Europeans brought to them, they would have survived losing less than they did. In conclusion, it can be said that, as we have seen, purely empirical evidence proves that the Native Americans did not use either politics or economics as the prime guideline for building the relationships either among themselves or between them and Europeans. These factors were not considered firsthand in any crisis situation, and even 370 years of war against the Europeans did not put them very high on the list of priorities. However, ethics and religion made quite an impact on the decisions made by the Native American people, and remain influential factors in their thinking to this day. This was the true motivation of most Native Americans, and remains so up to modern times. Works cited. 1. American Indian Culture Research Center: http://www. bluecloud. org/dakota. html 2. Dee Brown, â€Å"Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West†, Henry Holt Company; Reprint edition (February 1, 1991) 3. Terry L. Anderson, â€Å"Dances with myths – truths about American Indians’ environmental ethics†, Reason, February 1997. 4. Ghost Dance Religion: http://www. bgsu. edu/departments/acs/1890s/woundedknee/WKghost. html 5. Cultures of North America: http://www. mnsu. edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/index. shtml 6. Cultures of North America: http://www. mnsu. edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/index. shtml 7. David Stannard, â€Å"The American Holocaust†, Oxford University Press, 1992. 8. The Massacre at Wounded Knee: http://www. hanksville. org/daniel/lakota/Wounded_Knee. html 9. The Wampum Chronicles: Mohawk Territory on the Internet: http://www. wampumchronicles. com/index. html 10. George E. Tinker, â€Å"Religion†: http://college. hmco. com/history/readerscomp/naind/html/na_032600_religion. htm 11. NativeWeb: http://www. nativeweb. org/ 12. Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler: http://digital. library. okstate. edu/kappler/Vol1/HTML_files/toc. html 13. Abenaki Conference with Phineas Stevens. Documents Related to the Colonial History of the State of New York Vol. X. pg. 252-254. Donated by Jeffery Miller – Administrator of Fort #4. http://www. avcnet. org/ne-do-ba/doc_1752. html 14. The Manataka Oath, Creed and Code of Conduct: http://www. manataka. org/page182. html How to cite American Indian Hist, Papers

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Audit - Assurance and Compliance for Double Ink Printers Limited

Question: Discuss about theAudit, Assurance and Compliance for Double Ink Printers Limited. Answer: While developing the plan of audit relating to Double Ink Printers Limited (DIPL), the analytical procedure related to financial information offers great benefits. On the other hand, the plan of audit offers the needed guidelines and directions to the auditors during the operations of audit. In other words, the plan of audit helps the auditors to maintain the audit cost in a certain limit to curb confusion with the audit clients (Carson, Redmayne and Liao 2014). The procedure of evaluating the financial performance of the organisation could be formed with the help of various mechanisms. It has become possible for the financial analysts and accountants to utilise the financial information in order to make various business decisions through the analytical method. The common size analytical method helps in the process of evaluating the financial declaration of the organisation from the prevalent referential points. The fundamental merit is that it lends support to compare the financial statement from different financial timelines. The financial analysts and accountants could make use of various lines of items from the financial statements and accordingly, the base of preparation could be made for the firms. For example, the process of registration of various accounting and financial items in the financial statements like owners equity, overall liabilities and assets could be taken into account along with the dissection of digression from the normal position (Carson et al. 2014). One of the primary analytical processes related to financial information is benchmarking, which could be used to evaluate the plan of audit. In addition, ratio analysis is a fundamental analytical procedure associated with the financial information of a firm, as it could be used to compare the performance of the firm with its competitors to develop the audit plan (Cohen and Simnett 2014). Explanation: The analytical methods of the organisations to dissect the financial information has considerable impact on the process development associated with audit planning and this is vital for flowing financial information amongst the certain departments of the organisations. Certain ratios in the context of DIPL have been taken into account for this purpose: Particulars 2013 2014 2015 Profit margin 0.068 0.60 0.06 Current ratio 1.42 1.46 1.50 Solvency ratio 0.62 0.44 0.21 Based on the above table, it could be stated that the organisation has experienced an improvement in liquidity position with the increase in current ratio over the years. However, the fluctuating profit margin has helped in disclosing the net income gained compared to overall revenues generated (Fernandez-Feijoo, Romero and Ruiz 2016). Along with this, such profitability evaluation provides the accountants and financial analysts with an insight of ascertaining the expenses of the firm. Furthermore, an insight about the efficacy of the company budget has been obtained, which would serve the need for business expansion. The favourable as well as unfavourable modifications in the financial performance and ratios of the organisation help the auditors in developing an overview of the present financial condition of the organisations. In this regard, the consideration of solvency ratio has been made that has declined over the years. Such assessment is crucial to ascertain the desirable or undesirable movement of the firm performance over consecutive years. In other words, it could be stated that the evaluation and comparison of ratios and financial performance help the accountants and financial analysts to determine the relative financial condition of the organisation over the years. It helps to determine whether the current financial condition of the firm is feasible or not. If the condition is not feasible, the management needs to implement corrective measures to improve its financial performance. Hence, the analytical process associated with financial information has immense value (Gu, Simunic and Stein 2017). Based on the provided case, the management has failed to record certain business transactions. Such method has direct association with the inconsistencies associated with the planning of various sales and marketing activities of the organisation (Hardy 2014). The financial evaluation of DIPL implies that the profit level is inadequate when compared with the overall revenues generated. The fundamental cause is the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of the management in handling its business operations. In addition, the organisation has not been able in measuring the influence of various macro and micro-economic factors on the business functioning of DIPL. Thus, these factors have lead to lead inherent risk for the organisation (Jones 2016). In addition, the employees of DIPL have grown rapidly resulting in increased inherent risk. The lack of experience and professionalism of the staffs of the organisation has increased the level of inherent risk, as they could conduct serious mistakes. According to the provided case study, the problems could be identified in the CEO succession procedure of the organisation. Due to this, such procedure has lead to increase in inherent risk of the organisation. However, this procedure has not been effective in DIPL. Along with this, it could be seen that DIPL does not have adequate employees in handling its business operations, which has again lead to increased inherent risk in the entire business operations of the organisation. Therefore, from the above assessment, it has been found that these are the fundamental reasons of increase in inherent risks in the business functioning of DIPL (Junior, Best and Cotter 2014). Explanation: As observed from the case study, the amount of work pressure on the employees of DIPL is extremely high. The rising workload leads to inaccurate bookkeeping of the firm and this issue further leads to various cash flow problems, ineffective solvency and liquidity positions along with unsuitable operating results for the organisation. Along with this, the error risk could be represented in the financial reports because of inappropriate interpretation. In this regard, the management of the organisation has a significant role to play. However, there is lack of integrity and accountability in the management of DIPL and because of this reason; they are facing the concern of reputation loss in the business community. The higher structure of incentive associated with management develops extra pressure on the management due to which there has been material misstatement in the financial reports (Kend, Houghton and Jubb 2014). In the present day business organisations, fraudulent risk is considered as the primary risk in the context of the same. Because of the occurrence of such risk, the business firm often face huge losses in its business assets (Rahim and Idowu 2015). In most of the situations, the basic dissatisfaction could be seen among the workforce and such dissatisfaction often force them to involve in different kinds of frauds in firms. Another cause of fraud is to meet the needs of the investors associated with an organisation. This is because it often promises to accomplish a specific financial position; thereby, leading to higher level of fraud (Shah and Nair 2013). Types of risk Identification Fraudulent risk In the context of the business functioning of DIPL, the major risk that could happen from the business operations is the engagement of the staffs in different types of fraud activities. This mainly arises with the fall in satisfaction level of the staffs. According to the case study of DIPL, it could be stated that the board of the organisation has exerted excessive pressure in adopting a new accounting system. The adoption of such system creates a huge pressure on the workforce of the organisation and this pressure has lead to fraud. Hence, it is evident that for dealing with such pressure of reconciliation, the staffs might adopt unscrupulous behaviour leading to wrong handling of the overall process, which further results in material misstatement (Singh et al. 2014). Based on the case study, it could be seen that the process of ineffective handling in implementing the new information technology leads to inaccurate treatment of accounting transactions at the year end. Such procedure might lead to loss of financial information and material misstatements. Procedure of financial reporting One of the primary audit risks is related to the process of financial reporting. The additional risk of incorrect financial announcements could be observed, if extra expectations could be seen from various stakeholders for the financial announcements. This holds good in case of management announcements for accomplishing a specific target of the goals for acquisition of debt. Depending on the financial statements of DIPL, it could be viewed that there is increase in revenue from 2013 to 2015. Along with this, the gross income and net income of the organisation have increased in tandem. The information collected from the case study states that DIPL has obtained a loan amount of 7.5 million from BDO Finance in 2015. The case study further reveals that the DIPL needs to maintain a current ratio of 1.5 and debt-to-equity ratio of below 1. The need of this specific arrangement might be to exert pressure on the firm to repay the loan according to the agreed timeline. These requirements could lead to fraudulent activities, as DIPL could manipulate its financial statements to win the trust and confidence of its investors. In case, it is unable in maintaining the desired benchmark, BDO Finance might not grant any further loan to the organisation (Stewart, Kent and Routledge 2015). According to the provided case, it has been assessed that the procedure of valuation associated with the raw materials of the organisation depending on average cost is not appropriate, since the current cost of paper exceeds the average cost. The primary risk in the identification of fraudulent activities of its staffs to implement new system of information technology could be detected through continual monitoring of the same in different job phrases. Alongside this risk, the risk pertaining to the procedure of financial reporting could be identified through assessment of the various financial statements and reports of the organisations and the responsibility lies on the financial analysts and accountants with the help of various analytical and control procedures. This process of reviewing as well as monitoring is needed to be carried out in a timely fashion (Sutherland 2017). Thus, it has become possible for the financial analysts and accountants to utilise the financial information in order to make various business decisions through the analytical method. References: Carson, E., Redmayne, N.B. and Liao, L., 2014. Audit market structure and competition in Australia.Australian Accounting Review,24(4), pp.298-312. Carson, E., Simnett, R., Trompeter, G. and Vanstraelen, A., 2014. The Impact of Group Audit Arrangements on Audit Quality and Pricing. Cohen, J.R. and Simnett, R., 2014. CSR and assurance services: A research agenda.Auditing: A Journal of Practice Theory,34(1), pp.59-74. Fernandez-Feijoo, B., Romero, S. and Ruiz, S., 2016. The assurance market of sustainability reports: What do accounting firms do?.Journal of Cleaner Production,139, pp.1128-1137. Gu, T., Simunic, D.A. and Stein, M.T., 2017. Fixed Costs, Audit Production, and Audit Markets: Theory and Evidence. Hardy, C.A., 2014. The messy matters of continuous assurance: Findings from exploratory research in Australia.Journal of Information Systems,28(2), pp.357-377. Jones, P., 2016. Internal audit: An integrated approach.Company Director,32(5), p.50. Junior, R.M., Best, P.J. and Cotter, J., 2014. Sustainability reporting and assurance: A historical analysis on a world-wide phenomenon.Journal of Business Ethics,120(1), pp.1-11. Kend, M., Houghton, K.A. and Jubb, C., 2014. Competition issues in the market for audit and assurance services: are the concerns justified?.Australian Accounting Review,24(4), pp.313-320. Rahim, M.M. and Idowu, S.O. eds., 2015.Social Audit Regulation: Development, Challenges and Opportunities. Springer. Shah, M. and Nair, C.S. eds., 2013.External Quality Audit: Has it Improved Quality Assurance in Universities?. Elsevier. Singh, H., Woodliff, D., Sultana, N. and Newby, R., 2014. Additional evidence on the relationship between an internal audit function and external audit fees in Australia.International Journal of Auditing,18(1), pp.27-39. Stewart, J., Kent, P. and Routledge, J., 2015. The association between audit partner rotation and audit fees: Empirical evidence from the Australian market.Auditing: A Journal of Practice Theory,35(1), pp.181-197. Sutherland, D.W., 2017. Independent audit report.Newsmonth,37(3), p.19.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Technology and Policing free essay sample

Law Enforcement embraced the use of a wide range of these scientific techniques to curb criminals. Policing has integrated technology in their work to make apprehension of criminals and investigation of cases easier. Technology In the police department ranges from computers to computer software which has made policing more convenient and efficient to the public community and to the law enforcers. This paper will therefore establish the particular technological advances that have made police work more accurate and time saving, how much of he technology the law enforcement should embrace and how technology is being used by law enforcement.Two journals are compared and contrasted. Peter Manning, in his Journal describes how technology has helped In policing through use of Information technology In crime analysis and crime mapping. In his journal, Manning argues that although technology In police departments have helped in solving crimes and curbing criminals more efficiently, technology is not being used to its full potential to fight crime. We will write a custom essay sample on Technology and Policing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Some police departments are yet to embrace policing technology and this derails them in fighting crime.Therefore, he commends suitable technologies that can be adopted in policing to make their work easier (Manning, 2008). In his Journal, he explores the Interrelationship between public and private police Institution. HIS SIX year long research focuses on three police department in Washington and explores the effects that different forms of technology have on policing. His journal further looks into crime mapping and crime analysis in ways which the law enforcement firms can use to make their work more effective.Another Journal, Police Technology by Raymond E. Foster explores the history of been fully utilized in policing. Raymond attributes the effectiveness through which crimes are solved to technology. Fingerprinting and crime laboratories which were introduced in policing in the sass made solving of cases by the police faster. He further explores the role of private sector manufacturers, whose services the police depend to acquire the technology needed. Raymond report notes the introduction of computer in police stations to have been around the sass.He however reports that computers were not being used by the police to make their work effective, maybe due to the complexity of the gadget (Raymond, 2008). Police officers were hence squired to take courses to upgrade themselves to be able to use the computers although insufficient funds marred the training. Once in complete use, the computers cut the paper work in police departments almost by half. Today, even the small police stations have computers. The most widely used technology by the police is use of mobile phones.This technology gives room for mobility of the officers which is much needed if they are to catch up with criminals. Use of mobile phone technology allows the officers to access information from the Police National Computers, hence allowing them to do their ark without being at the office, hence efficiently. The emergency response departments have gained a lot from the use of mobile gadgets as they are able to respond faster to situations irrespective of their locations. The one major problem facing use of mobile technology is the network coverage, but with time it will improve. Actually, the police force encourages those officers with no knowledge of technological devices to learn about them, and require those Joining to have mandatory knowledge on the use of these devices. Another technological device that has helped law enforcers in curbing crimes is he use of laser guided tracking systems instead of engaging the criminal in a speed chase. The officers only follow the get away vehicle for a short distance; launch the GAPS device from the front of their vehicle onto the get away car through laser sight and let the criminal go away.The officers are able to follow the whereabouts of the suspect through wireless networks in real time. When the suspect slows down the police now apprehend him. This technology has helped the police force since a decline in deaths of those who die from stray bullets has been observed. The officers re also safe since they do not engage in shooting run away suspects. Suffolk police County Police Department is carrying a pilot test of this technology while the Los Angels Police Department is already using it.The Federal Investigation Bureau (FBI) is one unit that is using technology to do its work and technology has not disappointed them. The FBI launched the first investigation and crime laboratory in 1910. Ever since 1910, the lab has been updated through acquiring the newest technology. Evidence collected from a crime scene is taken to the lab and analyzed to help in solving the crime. The FBI is using a very interesting technology to detect whether a person knows something about a crime scene (Raymond, 2008).They take images of a crime scene, and using a called brain fingerprinting to detect the reaction of the person when he/she sees the images. The FBI can know if a person knows something about a certain crime depending on the reaction of the brain after seeing the images. Brain fingerprinting has helped the FBI solve numerous cold cases because it helps in collecting evidence on a crime. DNA is another technological advance that has made the work of the FBI easier. DNA use started in the early sass and its reliability was guaranteed.DNA testing has helped crime investigators since they can take DNA samples from the scene of crime and from the suspects and compare them. Cold cases which used to take months and years to solve can now be solved in a matter of days, thanks to DNA technology. By using DNA the FBI can also be able to connect a dead body to the owner and further to investigate cause of death leading to the arrest of the perpetrator. There are other technologies that have been of help in the police department although they are not talked about much.For example, use of rubber lets to disperse violent crowds, use of bullet proof Jackets by officers to protect themselves in case of shoot outs, use of small gadgets like tasters which delivers shock to a person momentarily killing them. A tasters only limitation is the range within which it can be used (Raymond, 2008). A police officer has to be close to the suspect to use it effectively, which might be dangerous for the officer. Technology is not only limited to the FBI. Other law enforcement units in dire need of technology are the border patrol police and the traffic police.The border police need equipment to detect hidden weapons and drugs being crossed over orders. They also need devices to stop run away speeding vehicles as suspicious vehicles speed away when stopped for investigation and police take time to catch them or loose them altogether (Manning, 2008). But with the introduction of tagging systems, fleeing vehicles will be a thing of the past. A remotely operated device can be attached to the fleeing vehicles and it can be followed remotely until it slows or stops thats when the culprit is accosted.The tagging device will also come in handy for the traffic police. They do not have to engage in high speed chases with criminals and endanger their lives and those of the citizens. Funds have always been the restricting factor for the growth and implementation of police technology although the government is doing all it can to make sure that the latest of the technologies are available to law enforcement officers. It is important for law enforcement officer to acclimatize to technology as it comes if they are to fight crime. Criminals are also not about to be left behind by technology (Raymond, 2008).They use the internet and mobile communication to plan and carry out their felonies. With all the technology available to anyone who as money, it is not difficult for Iranians to acquire the best guns and other lethal objects and the police should be in a position to deal with them. The use of a detector that can detect metal objects and other weapons is therefore a must have for police officer especially those on patrol. It helps the officers detect the weapons from a safe distance and accost the technology to curb criminals.For example, certain drug dealers had a website where they exchange ski materials with narcotics. Police posed as prospective buyers on the internet and caught the criminals in the act. Acceptance of technology by the law enforcers has also been cited as a reason why technology is not being fully utilized by law enforcers. Therefore, before Joining the police force it is important to have knowledge of the various form of technology in use so that it can be easy for and individual to acclimatize and use the technology (Manning, 2008).Technology not only helps protect the life of citizens, but also keeps the law enforcement community safe. Personally, I would recommend the use of as much technology as is available to the police to help fight crime since the criminals are also using crime to commit crimes. Technology will help the officers to be always step ahead of the criminals sometimes even catching them before they commit a crime or catching them red handed.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Communication Case Essay Example

Communication Case Essay Example Communication Case Essay Communication Case Essay Communication allows thoughts to be conveyed clearly and compactly. Communication is important for developing positive relationships with kids. immature people and their households. co-workers and other professionals We communicate to show our emotions like bravery or fright. joy or sorrow. satisfaction or letdown with appropriate gestures and words. Communication is critical for seeking and supplying information. AiiDescribe TWO ways how effectual communicating can impact relationships in an grownup societal attention puting between persons utilizing the service. their carer’s. co-workers and other practicians. 1. Effective communicating is the footing of all relationship regardless of whether the relationship is professional or personal. It is of import as it helps to give concise and clear information and extinguish the possibility of hazards to patients. 2. Besides with effectual communicating there would be a positive ambiance within the work topographic point and co-workers would be more willing to assist each other out. Staff would cognize where everything is and besides offer excess support with your work load. AiiiIdentify THREE ways of happening out the communicating and linguistic communication demands of an person. For each method. depict how effectual it is at set uping the demands of the person. Method How effectual this method is? Looking through old records Previous records can place the individual’s unwellness or disablement and what sort of support they will necessitate to set up communicating and linguistic communication demands. Observation Observation is effectual as it is set uping the communicating and linguistic communication by watching/talking to the patient themselves. Communication with family/other professionals Family. friends and other professional who have worked/lived with the patient will hold a batch on information/knowledge on the patient. They would hold developed ways of covering with the patient’s communicating and linguistic communication over a long clip. AivDescribe THREE factors to see when advancing effectual communicating. Disabilities: Disabilities such as hearing loss. impaired vision. mobility jobs or speech impairment can impact the effectual communicating. Proper communicating method should be known before pass oning the people with disablement or different wellness issues. Cultural Differences: Communication differences can ensue from differences in civilization. In some civilizations. kids are non allowed to talk in forepart of grownup and some sort of organic structure gesture. oculus contact. facial look and touch are inappropriate. Environment: Environment is one of the most of import factors to see. Guarantee the visible radiations. air. temperature. noise and that it is safe and comfy for the patient before set uping effectual communicating. AvDescribe THREE verbal and THREE non-verbal communicating methods and manners that a societal attention worker may utilize in an grownup scene. Verbal Non Verbal Spoken – When people speak face-to-face or via the phone it’s considered verbal communicating Body language/Body motions – Body motions include gestures. position. caput and manus motions or whole organic structure motions Written – authorship is considered a signifier of verbal communicating because words are involved. Eye contact – It is of import to give oculus contact as it helps the individual know that you are listening Non-spoken – A individual doesn’t have to talk words for a communicating to be considered verbal. A moan can measure up. In fact. any noises or vocalizations a individual makes are included in this categorization. Position – Posture can reflect people’s emotions. attitudes and purposes. Avi Explain why it is of import to react to an individual’s reactions during communicating. It is of import to react to an individual’s reactions during communicating because it shows you are actively taking portion in a conversation. It besides shows that you are listening. With no listening at that place truly isn’t a conversation go oning. If you are listening passively. so you are giving small or no feedback. If you are like this. so you are improbable to do consistent responses. Avii Explain how an individual’s background can act upon their communicating methods. An individual’s background can act upon their communicating methods by the manner in which they are brought up and the society and civilization that they live in has a great consequence on the manner in which they communicate. In some civilizations kids are non allowed to talk in the presence of certain grownups. Some people may hold been brought up in a background of disputing environments. Some adult females do non talk in forepart of other work forces out of household. These factors will extremely act upon the manner they communicate and to set up communicating with these groups of people. Besides there may be a linguistic communication barrier which would act upon communicating methods. Aviii Identify three illustrations of barriers to communicating and explicate how you could get the better of each barrier. Barrier How it can over come Language differences You can get the better of this by placing the preferable communicating method and utilizing the appropriate method to pass on. Culture differences You can get the better of this by supplying an translator or transcriber service. Using makaton. organic structure linguistic communication and images etc. Physical Barrier You could get the better of this by look intoing the individual’s record. talking to a household member or friends or through the country’s cultural representative. Aix Describe two schemes that you could utilize to clear up misinterpretations. 1. Be polite and ask kindly in a unagitated professional mode. 2. Writing instructions clearly and briefly. Ask the them to reiterate what I have said to guarantee clear apprehension. AxA societal attention worker wants to enable more effectual communicating with persons utilizing the service. Explain how they could entree extra support or services that may be helpful. Translation services – This service can assist with altering the written text from one linguistic communication to another. Interpreting services – This service can assist with change overing spoken linguistic communication to another linguistic communication. Speech and linguistic communication services – This service can back up people who have had a shot and hold jobs with their address. Advocacy services – This service can back up people who are unable to talk up for themselves. This service tries to understand the demands. wants and penchants of people. and will reason on their behalf.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Assessment and process of medical education

Assessment and process of medical education Assessment plays an important role in the process of medical education as it is an effective tool which detect quality in students training to motivate and direct them to what they must learn(1). â€Å"Assessment drives learning† this statement focus on the essential role of assessment as well planned and implemented assessment has an important steering effect on learning because it transfers what is important to learn and motivate students for learning(2). Many people argued that as the curriculum should be the key which motivate learning while assessment should be designed to be sure that learning outcomes have occurred, So assessment tool must has clarity of the learning purpose and must be designed to drive educational intent and maximize learning(3). Constructive alignment is an important influential idea in which the students construct meaning from related learning activities and teachers apply learning environment which support planned learning activities to achieve th e intended learning outcomes(4). So constructive alignment makes the teaching systems consistent when curriculum, learning activities and assessment methods are aligned with intended learning outcomes(5) . Moreover, assessment may reveal learning outcome which isn’t expected but it is recognized as important outcome, so it must be integrated into the intended learning outcome as emergent outcome(6). Formative assessment promotes deeper learning as it provides students with feedback to encourage them to know their strength and weakness which reinforce students internal motivation to learn and improve their knowledge and skills(7). Summative assessment is a final assessment which determine the rank-order students and decide grades(1). Wass et al(7) argued superficial learning which aim mainly on passing the examination and they emphasized on the importance of feedback on students assessment which encourage student reflection and deep learning. However, Epstein(8) showed that su mmative assessment influence learning even in the absence of feedback as students study what they expect to be tested on. Although formative and summative assessment are stark in contrast, they are both necessary and distinction between them should be made to detect which assessment is suitable only for formative use or have sufficient rigorous for summative use(7). Van der Vleuten and Schuwirth(9) emphasized that formative and summative assessment can be used with little difference with focusing on the development of comprehensive assessment programme in which both encourage learning and right decision about learners. I will focus my writing on written assessment as I am involved in assessing written examination of MSc of Radiology scince 5 years. According to Miller pyramid we use written assessment to assess the domain of cognition, either factual recall of knowledge â€Å"knows† or application of knowledge and problem solving â€Å"knows how†. We use written assess ment in the form of essays and multiple choice questions in formative assessment of the residents and in summative assessment of final exam. Our final written exam formed of two papers of essays, each one formed of four essay questions with three hours duration for each, and third paper of 20 multiple choice questions with one hour duration. When we prepare a written exam we identify the level of residents training to apply test which assess knowledge appropriate to students experience.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Hr Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Hr - Essay Example Instead, individuals from minority groups are given chances within organization as provided for by law. Such individuals could be qualified for the jobs or not. The main challenge that is going to arise is the ability of the persons to deliver in the positions assigned competently. Issues that might arise is the employee job satisfaction, and quality of job delivered. Secondly, minority groups within organizations could find it difficult to adapt to the prevailing conditions. The main point of challenge is usually the communication aspect within such organizations. The management of the organization might prefer to use a method if communication that is only understood by the majority within the organization. The issue in this case is a breakdown in the passing of instruction. The result is that the quality of work delivered by persons from the minority will be low or compromised. Cultural adaptation within the organization could also affect the employee of minority origin in a negative way. This is due to stigmatization of employees whose recruitment has been done through affirmative action (Spielberger, 2004). In conclusion, affirmative action comes with both advantages and disadvantages to the various stakeholder in an organization. Careful planning and policy evaluation should be well done before instituting affirmative action in recruitment of

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Three Years of the Korean War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Three Years of the Korean War - Essay Example It was the early days of the Cold War and the attentions of the Soviet Union and U.S.A. was more focused on the European theatre than on the Koreas in Far East Asia. Yet, Korea and the Korean War would turn out to be the first theatre to demonstrate the extent to which the grand alliance of Russia with the other Allied powers during the Second World War had fallen apart in the fight by the remnants of the Allied combination against communism inspired by the Soviet Union. At the end of the war there were no territorial gains or prestige for either side, except a rise in the esteem of the newly emerged communist China.1 The Korean War would not have been extended, causing more casualties and suffering, but for the unnecessary invasion of North Korea by the UN Forces led by America. The Course of the War The North Korean invasion of South Korea began on June 25th 1950 and the unprepared army of South Korea could not offer strong resistance, and North Korean troops quickly reached the Se oul the capital of South Korea. American reaction was swift. President Truman in keeping with the American policy of containment of any expansion of communism feared that the fall of South Korea would create a breach in this containment policy and rushed support to the beleaguered South Koreans. In addition, support from the United Nations was obtained, so that more nations could come to the aid of South Korea. Though the immediate result of the America intervention did not go well, the famous Inchon operation by the commander of the American force General MacArthur led to the defeat of the North Korean forces in South Korea. They retreated into North Korea. In spite of disapproval of the Truman administration General MacArthur decided to enter North Korea and inflict a total defeat of North Korea, even if it meant risking war with China. This was the fateful decision that brought China into the Korean War, extending its duration and increasing the number of casualties during the co urse of the war. 2 There is clear evidence to show that had General MacArthur not send American led UN troops into North Korea, China would have kept away from intervening in support of the defeated troops of the North Korea. The Korean War hardly invoked any interest in China. The leaders in China were more concerned with Formosa and the Nationalist forces present there. This clearly indicates that the North Korean provocative action was a decision of their own, for their interests. China woke up to reaction only when there was the threat of American led UN forces invading North Korea, bringing an unwelcome presence of these troops on its borders. Even then it issued enough warnings against such an invasion. The lack of Chinese willingness to become an active participant in the Korean War can be seen by their conveyed willingness of remaining inactive, if the invasion was carried out only by South Korean troops, and would respond only if the invasion force included elements of othe r nations. Unfortunately, buoyed by the success at Inchon, the wrong belief that China would continue not to respond, and false confidence in the might of the American led allied forces, the invasion of North Korea was led by the elements of the American forces that reached the banks of the Yalu River, forcing China to respond to this threat. But for this decision of misadventure, hindsight clearly shows that China would not have entered the Korean War that led to an extension of the war, its intensity, and

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Hinduism and Buddhism Essay Example for Free

Hinduism and Buddhism Essay Hinduism and Buddhism are two of the renowned religions world widely. Hinduism is the religion of the great majority of the people of India. The word comes from the Sanskrit sindhu, â€Å"river,† and originally referred to the Indus. Hinduism is actually a collection of many native Indian religions, past and present. It is responsible for the social structure of India, especially for the caste system (a hereditary class system). Hinduism has about 20 sects, with beliefs that range from primitive forms of animism to the highest reaches of mysticism and philosophy. Many of the sects and cults seem to be separate religions. Yet all have a family relationship since they spring from common traditions and thrive. Hindus believe in rebirth, or reincarnation, and in what they call the law of karma. Under this law the conditions of each new lifetime are determined by the actions of the preceding life. To the Hindu, salvation consists of liberating the soul from attachment to worldly desires in order to gain union with Brahman. If a Hindu dies liberated he must be born again into this world and again endure its suffering (Stutley, 2004). The Vedas describe four main castes. 1. The Brahmins exercise spiritual power. (Brahmin is also spelled Brahman). 2. The Kshatriyas are warriors who exercise secular power. 3. The Vaisyas are merchants and cultivators. 4. The Sudras are artisans and laborers. Hindu worship for most part takes place in the home. A Hindu temple or shrine is considered an abode of deity and is not used for communal worship. There are kinds of Hindu clergy. Temple priests collect offerings and care for the temples and shrines. Domestic priests perform rites involving births, marriages, and deaths. Gurus are spiritual teachers. Sadhus are monks; most live in monasteries, but many live as wandering mendicants (beggars) (Chaudhuri, 1999). While Buddhism is a religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama (â€Å"Buddha,† or â€Å"The Enlightened One†) in India about 500 B. C. Buddhism is the chief religion of Burma, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Kampuchea, Laos, and China. It has been estimated that about one-fifth of the world’s people are Buddhists. Because many Buddhists also practice Confucianism or Taoism, however, some authorities estimate world membership to be much smaller. In the United States, there are a number of organized Buddhist congregations (Carrithers, 2003). Buddhism consists of numerous sects with varying practices and beliefs. Some of these sects are so different from the others that they appear to be separate religions. But all sects have in common the belief that they are following the principles laid down by Gautama. Early Buddhism, the religion as taught by Gautama, developed into two branches—Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism (Mizuno, 2001). Although Buddhism was originally a reform movement that rejected certain beliefs and practices of Hinduism, the two religions have several important beliefs in common. Among them are reincarnation, the ideas that a living thing can be reborn in a new body; the law of karma, which holds that events in life are effects whose cause lies in previous lives and acts; and liberation, or salvation, the state of being free of the law of karma and rebirth (Conze, 2002). According to Buddhism, liberation is attained through understanding and practice of the Four Noble Truths: 1. There is suffering in life. 2. Suffering is caused by desire for pleasure, existence, and prosperity. 3. Suffering and rebirth cease when one ceases such desires, leading to enlightenment, or Nirvana, a blessed state in which peace, harmony, and joy are attained. The Eightfold Path is also called the Middle Way—because of its emphasis on avoiding such extremes as following sensuous pleasures on the one hand, and self-punishment on the other. The Buddhists must at all times observe in the high moral principles described in the Eightfold path, which emphasizes nonviolence and the brotherhood of all. Reference: 1. Carrithers, Michael. The Buddha (Oxford University 2003). 2. Chaudhuri, N. C. Hinduism: A Religion to Live by (Oxford University, 1999). 3. Conze, Edward. A Short History of Buddhism (Allen Unwin, 2002). 4. Mizuno, Kogen. Basic Buddhist Concepts (Tuttle, 2001). 5. Stutley, Margaret James. Harper’s Dictionary of Hinduism: Its Mythology, Folklore, Philosophy, Literature, and History (Harper Row, 2004).

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Delegation :: essays research papers

Delegation Authority is legitimized power. Power is the ability to influence others effectively. Delegation is the distribution of authority. Delegation frees the manager to use his or her time on higher priority issues and activities. Although it frees a manager up, it does not free him or her up from the accountability for the actions and decisions of the people below him. That is why the manager must have qualified people underneath him so the actions or decisions that are actually made are along the guidelines that are established for the company or organization. The objective of delegation is to get the job done by someone else. In order to have someone else do the job for you, you must ensure that the person whom you are giving power to understands what you want, have the authority to achieve it, and that they know how to do it. These skills are essential when you are about to hand out orders. These all depend upon communicating clearly the nature of the task, the extent of their discretion, and the sources of relevant information and knowledge. I know at FedEx Ground, I can hop on our intranet and get help on a wide variety of things, such dispatching and changing schedules. For a manager, one thing he or she can delegate that should cause no problems are matters that keep repeating themselves. For example, I am in charge of dropping off the nightly deposits for FedEx C.O.D.’s at the end of the night. This is not hard, but why should the terminal manager do it. Another thing a manager can delegate is the part of a job that makes the one delegating way over specialized. This helps getting other people more involved with the operation, and it also helps people learn things that they do not know how to do yet. This also works the other way. If the one delegating has not done something in a long time, he can pass it off to someone that has worked in that department or who knows what they are doing pretty well. As I mentioned before, I work at FedEx Ground. We have a terminal manager in the building that the managers from the different departments report to. The terminal manager then reports to the upper management in the regional offices, and it goes all the way up the ladder finally to the headquarters in Pittsburgh.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Opposing Viewpoints- Vegetarianism Essay

When it comes to viewpoints there will always be an opposing side. You must develop your strongly focused opinion with examples and/or reasons. In order for a reader to accept your side you must use clear, powerful, and direct language to really capture them. Express your opinion clearly, and then base it on factual, researched or first-hand information. Hard facts and first-hand experience are so convincing to readers. The way to convince your audience to accept your opinion is through the combination of ethos, logos, and pathos appeals. These appeals are required for successfully appealing to the average reader and getting your point across in the most effective way possible. The vegetarianism lifestyle can be adopted for many different reasons. Aside from the main decision of preventing the cruel treatment of animals, many people choose this lifestyle for health reasons. Winston Craig supports this reasoning in his essay â€Å"Plant-Based Diets Provide Many Health Benefits,† while Ben Kim argues that this kind of diet causes many health problems in â€Å"A Strict Vegetarian Diet Is Unhealthy for Most People.† Their opinions, supported by facts, makes each case convincing. The credibility of these writers and their sources make for a great ethos appeal. Both writers are creditable given that Craig is a professor of nutrition at Andrews University and Kim as a chiropractor having first-hand experience with once being a vegetarian. Craig refers to specific studies and scientific literature to rest his case. While Kim uses his personal experience with vegetarianism. Kim also spent time interviewing someone that was a part of an organization that promotes vegetarianism instead of capitalizing on hard facts. In this aspect Craig was definitely more convincing. As telling as first-hand experience is, when it comes to health each individual is different. Just because Kim experienced these health problems doesn’t necessarily mean every vegetarian will. Kim didn’t use statistics as proof and that really weakened his viewpoint. Another weaknesses in Kim’s argument is that the organization he spent time interviewing was more focused on the prevention of cruel animal treatment instead of human health. Kim should have added just a few statistics to strengthen his standpoint and ethos appeal. Both Craig and Kim use logos as their strongest persuasion device. Craig captures readers by presenting hard facts with percents and numbers. He states that the vegetarian life-style is consistently associated with lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels along with less obesity and heart disease. Craig also refers to studies that prove vegetarians have one-half the risk of cancer and have a 35-44 percent lower risk of overall mortality. This information triples as a logos, pathos, and ethos appeal. This shows Craig’s credibility, its completely logical, and it even gets to the readers emotions a little by making them think about their own diet and how the should improve it and lengthen their own lives by doing so. Craig presents more hard facts such as, â€Å"The total direct medical costs in the United States attributable to meat consumption were estimated to be $30-60 billion a year, based upon the higher prevalence of hypertension, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, gall stones, obesity and food-borne illness among omnivores compared with vegetarians†(Craig). That’s a good point that you wouldn’t necessarily think about. Kim states, â€Å"My experiences with my own body and in providing health care to many people over the years have led me to believe that a long term, strict vegetarian diet is likely to lead to the development of nutritional deficiencies and significant health problems for most people.† This sounds reasonable with protein as a necessity the lack of meat would have to have an effect on the human body. He is a chiropractor and maybe he has seen patients with significant health problems from their vegetarian diet, but he didn’t mention anything specific just that he has â€Å"had experience.† Craig mentions dry beans and lentils as great alternatives to meat that will prevent these nutrition deficiencies. Overall Kim’s use of logos appeal could use some work. Another devise they both use to strengthen their stance is pathos. The authors use this device to attract the readers emotions. Kim brings up the cruel treatment of animals raised for food. It is understandable that he was trying to get the readers emotions going here, but honestly it is quite off topic. His point was to inform his audience how vegetarianism is actually not the healthiest choice. He brings up another point that the long term affects are what you have to watch out for. That is a good example of  pathos, the readers don’t want to hear that their eating habits will seriously affect them in the long run. Craig’s use of pathos comes in when he mentioned that over two hundred studies have proved that vegetarians have one-half the risk of cancer. The topic of cancer always pulls on heart strings. Just about everyone knows someone that has been affected by cancer. Both authors mention some information that they know will get an emotion response out of their audience. While both authors discuss the same topic, their valid viewpoints differ. In the end, Craig more successfully convinced his readers to take his side on this issue. His hard facts and his credibility by far outshines that of Kim. Although Kim makes use of the persuasive appeals, overall his perspective isn’t completely clear or reasonable. All in all, Craig did an excellent job developing his strongly focused opinion through the use of pathos, logos, and ethos. Works Cited Craig, Winston. â€Å"Plant-Based Diets Provide Many Health Benefits.† Vegetarianism. Debra A. Miller. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2010. Current Controversies. Rpt. from â€Å"Health Benefits of Vegetarian Diets.† Vegetarianism and Vegetarian Nutrition, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. Kim, Ben. â€Å"A Strict Vegetarian Diet Is Unhealthy for Most People.† Vegetarianism. Debra A. Miller. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2010. Current Controversies. Rpt. from â€Å"Don’t Let Philosophy Become More Important Than What Works.† Chet Day’s Health & Beyond. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 2 Oct. 2014.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Detente – Was it successful?

However, the term D ©tenet simply means a loosening of tensions, which did happen ND therefore is it correct to say that it failed? D ©tenet certainly backed away from more incidents like the Cuban Missile Crisis happening once again, and cooperation increased between the powers significantly, therefore to a fairly large extent I don't agree that D ©tenet was a failure. The policy was often viewed as ‘soft' and it was criticized by many Americans because the aggressive Soviet Expansionism continued.On the other hand though, expansionism doesn't signify any failure, because D ©tenet was not a tool to stop communism from spreading like containment was, but a policy to reduce tensions, or this reason Soviet Expansion can't be seen as a factor for the failure' of D ©tenet to any extent. It was also viewed as a failure because not all of the policies worked, for instance the Helsinki Agreement of 1975 was an agreement based around human rights, it was completely dismissed by the USSR, who viewed it as a ‘scrap of paper and as a country they continued to suppress people.Moreover, other agreements had faults too, such as SALT 1 which failed to put caps on new advances of weapons and which only lasted for five years. To some extent these policies can be seen to have failed, yet despite these downfalls, as a whole we cannot view D ©tenet as a failure because there were positives to the policies, such as Increased communication which In turn reduced tensions – the alma of D ©tenet. Other people viewed D ©tenet as a failure because The Cold War continued afterwards; they wanted D ©tenet to end the war completely.Following the period of D ©tenet, the appointment of Ronald Reagan as president of America led to a period of the ‘Neo-cons', a group of people that hated communism and wanted to eliminate t. For this reason, the Cold War fired up again, and some people believe that because of this, the policy of D ©tenet was a failur e; however to a large extent this is untrue, because D ©tenet was never a promise to end the Cold War, and both the Americans and the Soviets were aware that it was not the end. D ©tenet was a promise to reduce tensions, which It did successfully to a great extent.On the other hand, when reviewing D ©tenet overall In relation to Its aim, It was incredibly successful. The policy of D ©tenet aimed to reduce tensions between the Missile Crisis, which put into perspective how easily the countries could destroy each other; MAD, mutually assured destruction was the name given to this realization. In terms of mutually assured destruction, d ©tenet was a positive thing; it increased communications for example through the use of the hotlist set up and these steps avoided further crisis.For this reason, D ©tenet was to no extent a failure. In addition, D ©tenet had other successes for both America and The Soviet Union. America were able to use D ©tenet as a tool to get out of Vietnam, which was positive n terms of its international relationships. Moreover, D ©tenet stopped the Soviet Union from feeling isolated by the relationship built up by China and America, which was positive because this in turn reduced tensions and increased communications – the overall aim.Finally, D ©tenet improved the economic situation in both America and The USSR after the arms race had taken it's toll, this was done by an increase in trade and technology across the iron curtain. All these factors were positive and the loosened tensions between the superpowers, therefore D ©tenet was without a doubt success in achieving its aim. In conclusion, it's obvious that D ©tenet did have many downfalls and for this reason many people instantly conclude that it was a failure.On the other hand, to a large extent D ©tenet achieved its purpose because many policies reduced the tension that was present. D ©tenet should not be seen to have failed due to the fact that the C old War continued, because that was not the intention of the policy. Overall, it's evident that d ©tenet was only a failure to a marginal extent because of the downfall of some of the agreements, yet to a significant extent, D ©tenet was a success.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Free Essays on Response To Debate On Euthanasia

In recent years, Euthanasia has become a very heated debate. It is a Greek word that means "easy death" but the controversy surrounding it is just the opposite. Whether the issue is refusing prolonged life mechanically, assisting suicide, or active euthanasia, we eventually confront our society’s fears toward death itself. Above others, our culture breeds fear and dread of aging and dying. It is not easy for most of the western world to see death as an inevitable part of life. However, the issues that surround euthanasia are not only about death, they are about ones liberty, right to privacy and control over his or her own body. So, the question remains: Who has the right? For our debate we attempted to show the different views people have on the subject of Euthanasia. The two sides we considered where views for Euthanasia, and views against and the reasons why people would think this. These were not necessarily our personal views, on the matter. The term ‘Euthanasia’ means ‘easy death’ in Greek. Euthanasia is when someone requests purposely making or helping die, instead of allowing nature to take its course. Basically euthanasia means killing in the name of compassion. Euthanasia, can be ‘voluntary’, ‘passive’, or ‘positive’, Voluntary involves a request by the dying patient or their legal representative. Passive involves, doing nothing to prevent death - allowing someone to die. Positive involves taking deliberate action to cause a death. Euthanasia, at the moment is illegal throughout the world apart from in the State of Oregon, where there is a law specifically allowing doctors to prescribe lethal drugs for the purpose of euthanasia. In the Netherlands it is practised widely, although, in fact, it remains illegal. I believe that everyone has the right to choose how they live and die. Everyone deserves respect, freedom and the power to control their own destiny. Not everybody will have an easy death... Free Essays on Response To Debate On Euthanasia Free Essays on Response To Debate On Euthanasia In recent years, Euthanasia has become a very heated debate. It is a Greek word that means "easy death" but the controversy surrounding it is just the opposite. Whether the issue is refusing prolonged life mechanically, assisting suicide, or active euthanasia, we eventually confront our society’s fears toward death itself. Above others, our culture breeds fear and dread of aging and dying. It is not easy for most of the western world to see death as an inevitable part of life. However, the issues that surround euthanasia are not only about death, they are about ones liberty, right to privacy and control over his or her own body. So, the question remains: Who has the right? For our debate we attempted to show the different views people have on the subject of Euthanasia. The two sides we considered where views for Euthanasia, and views against and the reasons why people would think this. These were not necessarily our personal views, on the matter. The term ‘Euthanasia’ means ‘easy death’ in Greek. Euthanasia is when someone requests purposely making or helping die, instead of allowing nature to take its course. Basically euthanasia means killing in the name of compassion. Euthanasia, can be ‘voluntary’, ‘passive’, or ‘positive’, Voluntary involves a request by the dying patient or their legal representative. Passive involves, doing nothing to prevent death - allowing someone to die. Positive involves taking deliberate action to cause a death. Euthanasia, at the moment is illegal throughout the world apart from in the State of Oregon, where there is a law specifically allowing doctors to prescribe lethal drugs for the purpose of euthanasia. In the Netherlands it is practised widely, although, in fact, it remains illegal. I believe that everyone has the right to choose how they live and die. Everyone deserves respect, freedom and the power to control their own destiny. Not everybody will have an easy death...

Monday, November 4, 2019

South China Sea and the factors and effects of establishing a Research Paper

South China Sea and the factors and effects of establishing a multi-national joint force command - Research Paper Example Joint forces ought to achieve operational effectiveness. The United States Code provides doctrines that specify the hierarchy of obtaining joint forces’ effectiveness.2 Bearing in mind that most countries the challenges that have been mentioned, every nation regards stability of its economy as a vital aspect because it determines the country’s economic influence and survival in the current global economy that is characterized by stiff competition. Stability of a country’s stability is determined by macroeconomic factors such as its Gross National Product (GNP) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Precisely, a country’s stability is directly related to the country’s aggregate GDP. Therefore, it is vital that countries maintain their stability, through stabilization of their economies at all times. On the other hand, it should be noted that a country’s national and economic stability faces various external and emerging factors such as terrorism, inflation, political influences, and even the emergence of a multinational joint force structure. Most of these factors tend to have a negative impact on the country’s economy, therefore, leading to economic and social instability causing a decline in growth and development. As a result, such instabilities may lead to poverty and unemployment, which may emerge as serious national issues. In addition, such issues may lead to further degeneration of the country’s economy, leading to possible events of emigration and poor living standards. Multinational partnerships or alliances are defined as an agreed upon partnership between two or more countries that have shared principles, a common view of threats, and a commitment to greater global security3.The partnerships reached, should aid in ensuring that there are mutual benefits that are derived from such coalitions directly aiding in the stability of a nation. Different nations have collaborated with each other in the

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Communication Process Model Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Communication Process Model - Essay Example In this scenario, nurse is the receiver of the message. The receiver obtains the message and understands the message according to his or her perception. The process of understanding the message is decoding, decoding of the message has taken place in this scenario but the receiver has not been able to understand the actual meaning of the message. The desired meaning of the message was that the patient has to take prescribed pills for three times a day, with an interval of four to six hours; the patient has to consume pills with food. The nurse interpreted the message in a different manner; the nurse perceived that the patient had to take one of the pills, each time he consumed food. Message is data dispatched by an individual (sender) and received by another individual (receiver). In this case, message was the directions of medicine consumption. Communication process fails if the message is misunderstood. Channel is the route selected by the sender to send the message. In this case, channel was patient record. Feedback is the response given to the sender by the receiver. Feedback helps the sender analyze whether the recipient has deduced the desired meaning of the message. Feedback can be vocal or non-vocal responses; in this case, feedback is the direction that patient follows to take his medication. This feedback will inform the sender (physician), that the message was not properly decoded. Obstacles are barriers of effective communication. In this case, obstacle was the perception of the receiver. The receiver could not perceive the actual meaning of the message, and the communication process failed. The patient has clearly misinterpreted the message because the nurse failed to interpret the original meaning of the message. The consequence of this misinterpretation is over dosage of medication. The patient might end up consuming the medication more than prescribed by the physicians; he might

Thursday, October 31, 2019

The right of habeas corpus in the context of the war on terror Essay

The right of habeas corpus in the context of the war on terror - Essay Example There had been no requirement of producing the body of the person with the cause of detention which never had been the case before. It was only for ordering an officer to produce the defendant and not for the purpose of scrutinizing the cause of detention by the court. There has been a mistaken impression that habeas corpus had been originally for the purpose of bringing people to custody and not to set them free. Actually, it was not for making arrest but to ensure the physical presence of a person to the court on the appointed day. However, the use of habeas corpus was not originally associated with liberty and it was a procedural requirement by which courts used to insist on the presence of the person to decide the matter relating to him. It was only with the enactment of Habeas Corpus Act 1640 that power of detention by the king was removed and abolition of all conciliar courts including Star Chamber was made. It was for the specific purpose of availing the right of habeas corpus by the detained persons requiring the King or Council to produce them before the court without delay and with a statement for reasons of imprisonment. The court was required to pronounce its verdict about the legality of the detention within three days and grant bail, discharge or remand the arrestee as it thought fit. A judge failing in this regard was liable to pay fines and damages to the aggrieved party. As the Habeas Corpus Act 1640 was not effective and the judges were not bold enough to contradict the king’s power of detention, the Habeas Corpus Act was 1679 was enacted. This Act was applicable to only criminal cases. This enactment marked the emergence of writ in its modern form (Zellick, Farbey, Sharpe, & Simon, 2011). Thus, the writ of habeas corpus has been an instrument against the unlimited executive power of detention first in England and then in the United

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Summary 7 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Summary 7 - Essay Example This can validate the identities of culturally diverse children as well as be the role models for these children. Teachers who can understand and appreciate culturally different strengths and cultural resources of children are found to be much more effective teachers are more likely to provide enriching environments that celebrate everyone’s differences. However, since the teachers themselves are exposed to mainstream education where cultural diversity is not as celebrated as it is today, it is quite a challenge to adapt. To address this need to adapt to the culturally-heavy classes, there are professional seminars and trainings that have been offered to them. One of these is the Family Literacy Nights with Latino families and their children since the Latino population comprise the biggest chunk of the culturally diverse population. With Family Literacy Nights, the teachers have interacted with the parents and the kids themselves. This project helped quashed misconceptions about the culturally-diverse families. With family literacy nights, the teachers have firsthand information about the immigrant families. They empathized with the frustration that the parents have over language learning and their affinity to use their old language. They understood that these people can never think like the native speakers. They also learned that the parents want to help their children excel in their English-based classes but cannot help since they do not know the language. They also knew reasons why some families cannot come to school activities: location and time matter. It is not that they do not support their children’s education, it’s because they do not have the means of transportation and the time to go to events (they have to work, and they are too poor to have a car). They also knew not to prevent the children from speaking their native language as this fosters sophisticated linguistic abilities (they had English-only policies

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Teleological Argument on the Existence of God

Teleological Argument on the Existence of God In todays society there are many arguments surrounding the question does God exist?. One of these is the teleological argument. The world around us is very intricate, from snowflakes to plain old rocks, much like the items we ourselves create. Many people nowadays and throughout history (myself included) noticed this trend and think about how our world is structured and detailed in a way that when studied closely, looks as though it mustve been designed in order to exist at all. Nothing we create that is complex (a computer chip/watch) is there by chance, they had to be designed, it had to be intricately placed together in order to create said object. If this is true of manmade objects, then surely everything that surrounds has to be created by an intelligent being too? These thoughts were brought together by William Paley and form what is known as the teleological argument in philosophy. A rock is just as complicated and mosaic like as a watch that has been painstakingly designed by hand when viewed on a quantum level, this idea is fully explained and examined in the watchmakers analogy which suggests that if a watch was designed, then surely all that is intricate in nature must surely have an ultimate creator. Paley himself began to consider this argument while thinking about religion, how God fits into the creation of the universe and everything in it. The theory that all things must be created, otherwise known as the intelligent design theory, has been debated and supported by numerous philosophers throughout the ages, from St Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century, through the movement in the 16th and 17th centuries led by the likes of William Derham, to modern day philosophical theorists and evolutionary biologists such as eminent atheist Richard Dawkins. The earliest cited versions of this argument are associated with Socrates in ancient Greece, although it has bee n argued that his ideas were influenced by earlier philosophical arguments. Plato, his student, and Aristotle, developed complex methodologies around the idea that the universe has an intelligent designer. William Paley was an English churchman and Christian apologist who lived in the mid-18th century to the early 19th century, his treatise and lectures (that were delivered to such notable philosophers as John Locke) on moral philosophy, concerned themselves with proving the existence of God. He believed that the complexity and order of all things could not have come about as a matter of chance, and that all things within the universe seem to have been designed with a purpose in mind. In Paleys mind the only thing that would make sense in order to explain this would be a God, the Christian God of his religion. This is in direct opposition to Darwins theory of natural selection and evolution. Using the watchmakers analogy Paley suggested The marks of design are too strong to be got over. Design must have had a designer. That designer must have been a person. That person is GOD. In this theory the watch is a metaphor for the universe; God is to the universe as Watchmaker is to the watch. Even if we didnt know where the watch from the analogy came from, we could still infer that it was made by someone or something with a specific purpose in mind because of its complexity and function. This can be transferred to the origin/creation of the universe and things we cant yet explain and since we have no definitive answers as to how to universe was created, we can assume the same. Paley did not accept that the existence of things such as natural disasters or immorality in the world as a counter argument for his theory or as evidence of a creators malicious intent or bad design. After all, even the most intricately designed things can be broken or go wrong in certain circumstances. A watch, despite its intricate design might sometimes malfunction which does not disprove the fact it had been created with intent and purpose. He believed that everything in the universe (natural or man-made) has an order. For example, the galaxy orbits its centre, just as the planets orbit the sun and an electron orbits an atom. Everything has a pattern, a structure, no matter how simple or intricate it is; they are in everything you look at or do. This order, Paley argued, is proof of his argument saying that God exists and is the ultimate creator of everything. The Scottish philosopher David Hume, who was a relative contemporary to Paley, disagreed with the idea of the intelligent design argument being proof of Gods existence, which he thought had a complete lack of evidence. Hume strongly believed in empiricism (that everything comes from our senses) and thought that rational thought and the laws of nature proved that miracles werent a possibility. He also argued that an orderly universe was not proof of a creator and that even if there was a God, supreme deity or designer we couldnt possibly know anything about it or prove its existence. He thought that if there was a creator, why did it have to be God? Could there be more than one creator/God? The design argument does nothing to prove the existence of God in the traditional sense, that being a God who is omnipotence, omniscience, and omnipresence (all good, all knowing and always there). Perhaps this deity isnt the ultimate being and the design argument does nothing to either prove or di sprove the existence of an all-powerful God. The fact that evil exists in any form and is everywhere, suggests that God is either all-powerful but not completely good or he has good intentions but is not able to eradicate evil and isnt all-powerful. Hume uses this as counter-argument to the idea of an omniscient God as an all-good and kind god wouldnt inflict needless pain on people/sentient beings that have done nothing wrong. It doesnt make sense, why would God make us with the ability to choose good or evil in order to allow us to receive eternal life and then punish us as soon as we make our own choices? If God existed (in the traditional sense) then the existence of evil, even in the tiniest amount, would contradict what the traditional Christian God is known as and stands for because you cannot be all-good, all-powerful and all-present if you allow evil and suffering to occur. Whilst Paleys theory attempts to explain the existence of an ordered and complex universe via his intelligent design argument many other philosophers have disagreed and came up with their own theories (Hume) which counter what Paley argued and tried to explain. Hume doesnt deny that there is a God or intelligent designer, but he discredits Paley by talking about rational thought and the problem of evil which seems to further pull apart Paleys already rather flawed argument. He also disputed the assumption that everything that exists must have a creator or a cause for existence. Primarily, Hume argued that a theory represented as a best possible explanation, such as Paleys, showed a complete lack of evidence to support it and instead raised many more questions than it answered. To conclude, I do not believe that the teleological argument proves or disproves the existence of God, I do however believe that it is a matter of perspective and personal judgement when it comes down to which side to believe/be on. Humes argument seems to me to be the more logical argument between the two, as it has less loopholes and flaws when compared to the teleological side. However, contrary to his reputation as The Great Infidel, Hume did nor categorically deny the existence of God, but argued that it cannot either be proved, nor disproved, which allows room for interpretation depending on your viewpoint.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Hacking Essay -- Technology, White Hat, Back and Grey Hat

Determine if hacking into a Web site is ever justifiable, applying your theory to a real-world case in which someone hacked into a system, including the name of the company and details. In general, hacking or more specifically cracking is not justifiable due to the negative connotations associated with the term. Hackers are generally categorized into three categories, white hat, black or grey hat (Arnone, 2005). White hats are personnel that are often employed to find holes, penetrate or exploit a security system so the company can take corrective actions. Black hats are typically associated will malicious activity (cracking) such as developing and deploying viruses, worms, theft or damaging a system. The gray hats are somewhere in between the white and the gray hats. Arnone discusses how the federal government is utilizing hackers to test their own security measures and learn how to secure their systems by understanding how hackers operate and gain entry into network systems (Arnone, 2005). The white hat hacker has proven value by showing a company where their security vulnerabilities lie. White hackers are also in demand. They are hired by consultants for many Fortune 500 companies to find external and internal weaknesses and report them in order for those holes to be closed (Wiles, 2008). There are some instances in which hacking can be justified. Hacking for National Security can be justified although controversial. The military has been using hacking techniques for decades. While not specifically tied to a computer, they have deceived the enemy using fake radio broadcasts, such as the preparations for the invasion of Normandy in World War II. The military has monitored radio conversations by eavesdro... ... constantly evolving threats and increasingly sophisticated cyber criminals, AT&T works to stay one step ahead. The company's sophisticated network monitors, probes, and algorithms to identify known or suspected viruses, worms, and other Internet attacks – often destroying them before they reach an enterprise† (AT&T, 2011). AT&T stresses individual vigilance regarding their personal account information. AT&T will never ask for any account information via e-mail or over the phone. Should you receive such inquiries, treat it as fraudulent. AT&T has alerted the cyber task force of the Federal Bureau of Investigation to provide assistance and examine our security systems to prevent a future breach. We treat this breach very serious and maintaining your trust is our highest priority and we apologize for the incontinence this security breach caused. Sincerely,