Friday, May 22, 2020

The Masque Of The Red Death By Edgar Allan Poe Essay

Edgar Allan Poe is a well known profound writer because of his great works of fiction through short stories and poetry. Often times inciting fear and suspense into readers by the use of tone and subject in a various literature ways. Evidently in stories such as The Masque of the Red Death, The Tale-Tell Heart, and The Raven being that they are all well known. Poe an unforgettable writer, because of his horror stories and writing style has created stories and poems that are classical and often spoken about. As well as inducing a sense of suspense to his own readers, he has become an inspiriting to a handful of writers to implement techniques similar to those of Poe and inspire certain character characteristics. Using different methods of writing and presenting stories Edgar Allen Poe has become and will forever be a key influencer in horror themed stories and poems. In The Masque of the Red Death, Poe uses description to fuel a feeling of suspense among his readers. One way of showin g this is by presenting the audience with seven rooms each ranging in color, but as the narrator goes further into the different rooms the descriptions of the rooms become darker in color and vibes. The first room being bright blue color and the last room being an unsettling dark black velvet tapestries with scarlet- a deep blood color windows (Poe 688). Being a reader of this particular story it brought about the question of what could be the significance of the colors starting from a brightShow MoreRelatedThe Masque Of The Red Death By Edgar Allan Poe1769 Words   |  8 Pagesâ€Å"isolation† is used, most people think of it as an action performed in solitude. It brings to mind an empty space in which one person resides, far from all others. However, isolation does not always occur in a singular sense. In â€Å"The Masque of the Red Death† by Edgar Allan Poe, isolation is used by a large population as a means of safety. In â€Å"The Thing Around Your Neck† by Chimananda Ngozi Adichie, isolation occurs among crowds of people and even in the company of someone close to one’s heart. In bothRead MoreThe Masque Of The Red Death By Edgar Allan Poe2034 Words   |  9 Pagesatmosphere exudes a dream-like quality, which calls into question if the events are simply a product of one’s imagination. This situation is comparable to that of â€Å"The Masque of the Red Death† by Edgar Allan Poe. Originally published in 1842, this narrative tells the story of a wealthy noble, Prince Prospero. An extremely deadly plague, the Red Death, has devastated the land, and Prince Prospero invited a group of a thousand friends to one of his abbeys to hide away from the disease. Everything about the partyRead MoreDeath in Masque of the Red Death by Edgar Allan Poe984 Words   |  4 PagesMasque of the Red Death by Edgar Allan Poe In the short story â€Å"Masque of the Red Death† By: Edgar Allen Poe he delivers the theme of age old inevitability of death and futility of trying to escape death, the setting of his story is based during a time when the bubonic â€Å"black† plague took over Europe. The black plague was a bacterium that survived in rats and rodents, human beings became infected when they got bitten by the fleas that lived on these rodents and rats; you knew you had gottenRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe s The Masque Of The Red Death1300 Words   |  6 Pagesmovement took action during the mid-eighteen hundreds in which Poe wrote his short story, Masque of the Red Death According to Edgar Allan Poe in his short story, â€Å"The Masque of the Red Death† â€Å"No pestilence had ever been so fatal, or so hideous.† Even though plagues had been common throughout the years, none of them had been as hideous as society was during the Movement. In his short story â€Å"The Masque of the Red Death†, Edgar Allan Poe demonstrates that people are naturally born evil, during the Anti-TranscendentalismRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe s The Masque Of The Red Death1225 Words   |  5 Pagesstories of tribes, to colonial poems, to the twisted mind of Edgar Allan Poe, there is a connection. Poe’s â€Å"The Masque of the Red Death† may not seem to portray the ideas of religion but through close examination, the association will become less cloudy. Poe’s use of symbolism, narrator, word choice, helps readers unmask the idea of religion. Poe’s use of symbolism is very evident throughout the story of â€Å"The Masque of the Red Death†. Much has been made about the meaning of the rooms that fillRead MoreThe Masque Of The Red Death By Edgar Allan Poe And Shirley Jackson1219 Words   |  5 Pagesa writer masterfully orchestrates their piece of literature to capture and intrigue an audience, the author utilizes a certain depth in the piece, where their vernacular elicits emotions. The short stories written by Edgar Allan Poe and Shirley Jackson, â€Å"The Masque of the Red Death† and â€Å"The Summer People†, produce an unexpected ending. The key to creating feelings of tension and suspense lies within their command of literary elements. Each of these aspects contribute toward the bigger pictureRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s The Masque Of The Red Death1409 Words   |  6 PagesA Literary Analysis of Edgar Allan Poe’s â€Å"The Masque of the Red Death† Edgar Allan Poe is popularly known as a Gothic short story writer. He has produced many gruesome stories, including the short story â€Å"The Masque of the Red Death†. In this short tale, Prince Prospero decides to lock himself and his friends of the court into a magnificently decorated abbey to escape becoming ill of a disease which has caused half the people in his land to perish. The Prince provides indulgences and throws partiesRead MoreMasque Of The Red Death By Edgar Allan Poe Analysis758 Words   |  4 PagesEdgar Allen Poe is famous for his distinct style of writing. Authors use stylistic elements to create an effect on their writing that develops a voice. Factors such as Edgars past has influenced his writing and has contributed to his style. In his literary works, Poe uses figures of speech such as irony, similar point of views, and allegory to establish his voice as an author. Figures of speech such as irony are used by Poe to create his style. In Masque of the Red Death it states, No pestilenceRead MoreComparative Essay- Rachel Orbach In â€Å"The Masque of the Red Death† by Edgar Allan Poe, and â€Å"To900 Words   |  4 Pages Comparative Essay- Rachel Orbach In â€Å"The Masque of the Red Death† by Edgar Allan Poe, and â€Å"To Build a Fire† by Jack London, both authors use similar protagonists who unwillingly have to face their death. Prince Prospero, in â€Å"The Masque of Red Death†, is avoiding a deadly plague by hiding in his castle with his kinsmen, and the man in â€Å"To Build a Fire† is traveling in the freezing weather trying to abstain from hypothermia and death. Prince Prospero and the man, while different from one anotherRead MoreCompare And Contrast The Style Of Edgar Allan Poe And The Masque Of The Red Death1018 Words   |  5 Pagesjust by reading it once. Edgar Allen Poe has a very distinct style one will see. Through themes, symbolism and tone, Poe is easily distinguished from other writers by having a style that is very dark, and suspenseful. Poe uses recurring themes that set him apart and emphasize the dark suspenseful style. One of the most common themes he uses is death, found in almost all of Poes works. In A Cask of Amantillado, it is centered around Montressor killing Fortunato, death being the only thought he

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Why The Government Should Restrict Gun Ownership - 1445 Words

Some people say that guns kill people. Others say that people kill people. The truth, however, is that people with guns kill people. Guns are the one of the most destructive weapons known to man and are the biggest causes of deadly casualties. Over the past decade, there have been countless gun-related deaths: homicides, suicides, and accidents. Events such as these don not only take the lives of loved ones, but they also bring tragedy to the families involved. The Federal Government should restrict gun ownership of mentally ill people and people that have criminal records in effort to reduce homicides, suicides, and accidents. The first reason why the government should restrict gun ownership is because the mentally ill can get a hold†¦show more content†¦During Lanza’s childhood he had many development challenges that interfered with his life. These challenges dealt with particularly with language, communication and sensory integration. During his early school years he had no problems whatsoever and was relatively happy. Later around fifth grade he began avoiding eye contact and became increasingly fearful. This is when Lanza was diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder (Ziv). Autism spectrum disorder is a disorder where your nervous system is impacted greatly and causes symptoms of communication, difficulty with social interactions, obsessive interests, and repetitive behaviors. Obsessive compulsive disorder is a disorder characterized by unreasonable thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead to compulsive behaviors. Obsessive compulsive disorder o ften centers on themes such as a fear of germs or the need to arrange objects in a specific manner. Symptoms usually begin gradually and vary throughout life. Another example of a deadly shooting that involved the mentally ill occurred in Aurora Colorado. This was inside of one of the movie theaters where James Holmes shot and killed multiple people he also injured a great amount of people as well. Holmes bought a ticket to the premiere of the new Batman movie being shown at Aurora movie theater. He then exited through the fire escape and then held

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Children Getting Parents in Trouble Free Essays

Although children are a parents responsibility, parents are not constantly with their children to keep them from doing irresponsible acts. Parents can only control what their children are doing if they are in their sight. Children will often blame their parents for their actions when in reality the child is either pressured by a friend, curious, or wanting to live the â€Å"life of a teenager† and have fun. We will write a custom essay sample on Children Getting Parents in Trouble or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is argued that parents should know where their children are but, children are not stupid and have many ways of working around that. They could tell their parents that they are going to go to their friends house and spend the night. The parents can only trust that their child is actually there. Then, there is a problem with parents who do not care at all about what their children do. If a child (child 1) was to spend the night at a friends house (child 2) and the parents of child 2 did not care at all about what the kids did and the kids went out to a party and got really drunk causing them to make some bad decisions, probably drunk driving, arsine, or murder. Than the parent that should have been watching the children is at partial fault. But they are not always the ones who get charged for the crime and it’s the other parents who get the blame. Parents can not help the curiosity that their children have. Children know right from wrong and know that what they are doing is not appropriate. They need to be punished for what they have done, if every child got away with crime and their parents were charged, than the child would never learn from their mistakes and think that they will be able to get away with anything and continue to commit crimes. How to cite Children Getting Parents in Trouble, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Veselin Pehlivanov Essay Example For Students

Veselin Pehlivanov Essay Art and the World IIProfessor Sorabella The Hospital ContextGrunewalds Isenheim altarpiece is an extraordinary work of art,expressive and dramatic. And Hayums impressive book tries to explain theoriginal context of Grunewalds German Renaissance masterpiece in order tohelp the reader to understand and appreciate it in terms of the particularneeds and circumstances of its creation. The first chapter of the book looks at the hospital context of thealtarpiece, and illuminates themes of dire illness and miraculous healingthat, according to the author, are features of the three panels of thismasterwork, and their relationship to the monasterys healing and spiritualmissions. The author herself reveals the main point, proposing that by thetime Grunewalds panels were added, the hospital context had become apowerful motivating force in the commission, that it provided a principalcomponent in the iconographic fabric of the work, and that it shaped acrucial aspect of the altarpieces overall function(p.17, ln.4-8). Sheargues that each of the three different stages of the altarpiece deal withillness in distinct manners, examining in details certain motifs andfigures (p.17, ln.11). Here we should underline certain, because justseveral lines above Hayum states that she wants to reexamine what was knownon the ground of the claim that it has tended to be viewed and analyzedmai nly in terms of isolatable details (ln.2-3). This contradiction weakensthe authors argument even before she started giving actual evidence in itsfavour. But the evidence itself is not more convincing, even though verypicturesque. In numerous places we can see how Hayum uses only very limitedpart of the complex details in the different states, which supports herview, how she takes for granted possible explanations, for which shealready mentioned that we assume, or how she explains particular detailstypical for the Christian iconography in a way that suits her purpose. Forexample, the author bases a significant part of her argument on thehaunting figure in the foreground of the Temptation of Saint Anthony,even though she says that given the professed goals of the monastery, wecan assume that the artist meant to suggest the symptoms of Saint AnthonysFire (p.21, ln.13-14). She doesnt pay any attention to the other demonsinvolved more actively in the torture of the saint, because they do ntsuggest anything connected to the hospital context. In another place, whenHayum writes about the middle stage, she admits that it suggested nosystematic association with the hospital context. But given the healingsaints in the closed state and the diseased figure and medical plants inthe open position, we are led to the hypothesis for which there is nostrict documentary basis that the Isenheim Altarpiece functioned aspart of the healing program at the monastery hospital (p.24, ln.5-12). Butthis doesnt prevent the author from using examples from the middle panelto support her argument. She explains the rosary that the infant Christplays with as associated with common necklaces and bracelets, good-luckcharms or amulets because of its physical nature as jewelry. But we knowthat the rosary is common element in depicting the infant Christ and theMother in the late Gothic and the early Renaissance so we explain it aswell with the influence of previous famous works treating the same to pic. We will write a custom essay on Veselin Pehlivanov specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Another unconvincing point is the alleged purpose of the red stones on thegold rings that the musical angels wear in the same panel to arresthemorrhage and to nullify the effect of wounds by suggesting the color ofblood. With no less reason we can argue that they exemplify the redemptiveeffect of the blood of Christ and the purpose of his being sent on earth. .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76 , .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76 .postImageUrl , .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76 , .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76:hover , .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76:visited , .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76:active { border:0!important; } .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76:active , .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76 .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u2b21d80580109751a2958cf8c101bd76:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Olga Zheleznyakova EssayBut the weakest of all points is that, if the predella is opened, Christcan be seen as a model amputee in the Lamentation. The main reason,pointed out by Hayum, is that in this case Christs body will be split justbelow the knees, which should suggest amputation, because amputation was anactive form of medical intervention in Antonite monasteries. But, first,this conclusion is based on the suggestion, made by Kurt Bauch, that thetwo halves of the predella were originally meant to slide apart on atracking mechanism, even though theres no direct proof of this. And,second, it doesnt take into consideration the fact that, if the predellais opened, Christ as depicted in the Lamentation has to be split in somepart of his body and that its more reasonable to split

Friday, March 20, 2020

Mass Media Essay

Mass Media Essay Mass media has a very big influence on the life of every person in the society. In order to stress this influence, and prepare students to react on the mass media in a proper way – professors often ask students to write a mass media paper, mass media essay, mass media research paper, mass media term paper, etc. This paper is written in order to reveal personal opinions of students and how they relate mass media to their life. Nowadays every single person is exposed to advertisements, and has to be adequate in his or her behavior towards mass media. So if you are asked to write a paper on mass media – you have to conduct a good research on the mass media movement, the development of mass media throughout history, the way mass media influences our life, and what to do to prevent negative influence of mass media. After the research has been conducted, you have to form a good mass media paper structure. You need to have a good outline, as well as a string hypothesis, of what message should your paper communicate to the audience. Mass media paper is nothing without proper examples. You need to prove your opinion; hence, you need to provide string evidence of your thoughts. What is better evidence than good specific example of every point of your outline of the mass media paper? If you need some extremely creditable examples – the best way to get them – is to browse through the history of advertising, marketing, mass media methods and techniques. Mass media is constantly changing, new methods and techniques are applied every second, and what you can do is acknowledge those people and companies who proposed significant changes in mass media, and single handedly have managed to change the course of mass media. CustomWritings.com is your number one assistant in writing papers on mass media topics. If you somehow stumble upon a very difficult mass media topic – you can ask CustomWritings.com for help and assistance. We will manage to do everything you ask us to do. Our policy at CustomWritings.com is to help our customers in any ways and means possible. We will provide a strung outline as well as a profound structure of the mass media paper, as well as help with any point of the outline in particular. Be sure to contact CustomWritings.com and inquire about a possible great mass media paper on any topic. Here is a list of the most popular essay topics on mass media: Great Britain and the Mass Media What impact do the mass media have on modern government and politics? Media Studies with specific  reference to mass media and the effects on the audience. Mass media is  reflection of society Mass Media and the Commodity Fetish An introspective look at mass media communications Examine the ways in which females are represented in the mass media Mass Media: What Noises in the Environment Effect Your Concentration The Effects of the Mass Media on Elementary Students Mass media on Politics

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Stellers Sea Cow - Facts and Figures

Stellers Sea Cow - Facts and Figures Name: Stellers Sea Cow; also known as Hydrodamalis Habitat: Shores of the northern Pacific Historical Epoch: Pleistocene-Modern (2 million-200 years ago) Size and Weight: About 25-30 feet long and 8-10 tons Diet: Seaweed Distinguishing Characteristics: Enormous size; small, flexible head About Stellers Sea Cow Although its much less well known than the Dodo Bird or the Giant Moa, Stellers Sea Cow (genus name Hydrodamalis) shared the unfortunate fate of these famous birds. Widespread across the northern Pacific Ocean for hundreds of thousands of years, by the mid-18th century this giant, 10-ton ancestor of modern dugongs and manatees was restricted to the obscure Commander Islands. There, in 1741, a population of a thousand or so survivors was studied by the early naturalist Georg Wilhelm Steller, who remarked on this megafauna mammals tame disposition, undersized head perched on an oversized body, and exclusive diet of kelp (a type of seaweed). You can probably guess what happened next. As soon as word of Stellers Sea Cow got out, various sailors, hunters and traders made it a point to stop over at the Commander Islands and bag themselves a few of these gentle beasts, which were valued for their fur, their meat, and most of all their whale-like oil, which could be used to fuel lamps. Within three decades, Stellers Sea Cow had breathed its last; fortunately, though, Steller himself bequeathed his studies of live specimens on future generations of paleontologists. (Its important to realize that Stellers Sea Cow had been on the decline for tens of thousands of years before Europeans arrived on the scene; according to one theory, early human settlers of the Pacific Basin overhunted sea otters, thus allowing the unchecked proliferation of sea urchins, which feasted on the same kelp as Hydrodamalis!) By the way, it may yet be possible for scientists to resurrect Stellers Sea Cow by harvesting scraps of its fossil DNA, under a controversial research program known as de-extinction.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

R. Twining and Company Limited Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

R. Twining and Company Limited - Assignment Example These may be seen as primary areas for Twining’s to focus on in the development of a future marketing strategy. Unilever’s second tea brand â€Å"Lipton† has had considerable success in marketing its range of products including iced teas at a relatively young market segment. This may be seen as an area further development. Changing consumer demands have seen a need for producers to change product portfolios in recent years. In general the customer may be seen as looking for healthier option moving away from instant tea and toward alternatives such as green and fruit teas (Parsons and MacLaran, 2009) In general customers may be segmented by type of product consumed and by demographic considerations, such as age (Kotler et al 2009). Key customer product segments include general black tea, healthier options such as green and fruit teas and alternatives to traditional products such as iced teas. While the power of the supplier may be seen as relatively low, given the commodity nature of the product (Porter, 2004). The major problem for producers such as Twining’s is that suppliers in recent years have suffered from several years of poor harvests (OECD, 2009, 2010). As such, overall production has fallen and thus an overall rise in prices has been felt in the market. Further distribution takes place in the restaurant and catering sector, Twinings may seek to develop a competitive advantage here marketing their teas and alternatives as a premium product suited to the distribution channel In summary, the external macro environment in which the tea industry operates in may be seen as generally stable with almost static sales volumes and a number of key growth areas. While the market is generally stable, this is the possibility of further rising costs due to environmental concerns in the come seasons (OECD, 2009,

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Outline the key effects of immigration on developed countries and Essay

Outline the key effects of immigration on developed countries and discuss whether the benefits outweigh the disadvantages - Essay Example It contribute to the immigrants better opportunities, better chances to fulfill their aims and objectives, and a better way of life    The living standard of people in the country, is indicated by using the real income per capital and real consumption by capital and also more foreign income is being generated..  The social and cultural aspects of the people are also a main factor to be considering these reduce the cost of labor market in the country and enough business establishments in the country.  Ã‚  Immigrants filling up those jobs reduce the work of consumers, producers and results in increased economic welfare.  The goods produced by the energy of immigrant workers can also contribute additional income as the goods can be sold at lower price.  The cost of market in a country reduces due to a increased number of people in the country. This helps the country lower the labor cost as a result of the people willing to work for the lower wages than the citizen. The creating of business in the country increases as a result of different people set to establish different businesses. The country increases the number of businesses established, and this in turn increases the options among the consumers due to a larger market. The population size increases the number of skilled laborers and hence positively influences productivity which changes the economic differences such as investment and trade. In essence immigrants  increase to the diversity of a society. People these days are leaving poor countries to change their way of living. One of the reasons is that these emigrants need to work to get money for their families. These emigrants some of them are from the poor countries and being ignored from their governments. These kinds of workers benefit the countries a lot and help them gain more profit. However, immigrants may dominate the work force and occupy more prominent positions than the

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Telecommunications Services of Trinidad and Tobago Company

Telecommunications Services of Trinidad and Tobago Company I have been employed with the Telecommunications Services of Trinidad and Tobago Company Limited (TSTT) for the past fourteen years. TSTT was historically, the single provider of telecommunications services in Trinidad and Tobago until the mid 1990s when, pursuant to a World Trade Organisation Agreement in 1997 on Basic Telecommunications, 69 countries agreed to liberalise their telecommunications sectors and to open their domestic markets to foreign companies. This agreement resulted in the entry of several competitors in Trinidad and Tobagos telecommunications market thereby ending TSTTs monopoly status. Against this backdrop, TSTT which provided primarily fixed line, mobile and internet services, engaged Goulet Telecom International Inc. to examine the impact of globalization on its operations. Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Analysis (SWOT) Gregory G. Dess, G.T. Lumpkin, Alan B. Eisner (2007) Strategic Management Text and Cases, 3rd ed. , New York, McGraw-Hill Irwin states One of the most basic techniques for analysing firm and industry conditions is SWOT analysis. SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. SWOT analysis provides a framework for analyzing these four elements of a companys internal and external environment. It provides raw material-a basic listing of conditions both inside and surrounding your company. The strengths and weaknesses portion of SWOT refers to the internal conditions of a firm-where your firm excels (strengths) and where it may be lacking relative to competitors (weaknesses). Opportunities and threats are environmental condition external to the firm. Opportunities and threats are also present in the competitive environment among firms competing for the same customers.(p 49) An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for TSTT in a competitive environment is highlighted, at Appendix A. Strengths One of the major strength of TSTT is its human resource capital and in particular, the leadership and experience of its executive management team which has steered the Company through the process of liberalisation in 2006, to its current position of sustained profitability. The strength of the Company is reflected in the leadership skills and managerial acumen of the executive team who ensured that the Company retained significant market share since the liberalisation of the sector. Management of TSTT have become more strategic in their thinking and in their of way developing new and innovative technology. TSTT are also developing the intellectual capacity of the workforce through e-learning, training and development program and courses. The strength of the Companys human resource capital is also reflected in the Companys middle management and Senior and Junior Staff employees who have successfully implemented the Companys strategic initiatives such as the deployment on new customer services such as Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) and BLINK Broadband. Weaknesses One of the major weaknesses which have been identified at TSTT is its poor network infrastructure and aged plant which has occasionally resulted in the delivery of poor customer service to its subscribers in many instances customers are made to wait for as long as a year to have their phones repaired especially if it is cable related issue. TSTTs aged outside plant has also had an impact on the Companys ability to provide new services such as IPTV to some of its customers due to the unavailability of upgraded plant facilities in certain areas of the country. As a result of the aged plant facilities, the Company has not rolled outits IPTV service throughout the country, thereby precluding it from effectively competing with FLOW, the dominant Cable TV provider which services the entire country. Another weakness is that TSTT was only able to focus on customer service when it was faced with competition, only then did the prices of the companys goods and services were reduced. Opportunities TSTT has sought to capitalize on by its foray into the entertainment sector through the provision of IPTV, a new service which it now provides in selected areas in Trinidad. The IPTV product which is branded Blink Entertainmentis a digital television service which, instead of delivering content through traditional broadcast and cable formats, is received by the viewer using internet protocol technology. TSTT, like many of the worlds major telecommunications providers is exploring IPTV as a new revenue opportunity from its existing and potential subscriber base and as a defensive measure against encroachment from competitors such as FLOW, a conventional cable television provider which now provides internet and voice services. Another new market which TSTT has sought to penetrate is the security services sector with the launch of its Blink Vigilance Security Service. This product which was launched on November 3rd 2009 (along with Blink Entertainment) is a wireless security surveillance system which TSTT offers to both commercial and residential subscribers. Trinidad and Tobago Guardian Newspapers, November 4th 2009 stated The opportunity to pursue this strategic initiative is as a result of the growing criminal activity in Trinidad and Tobago which has driven a demand for security services a point which was made by Dennis Gordon, Vice President, Organisational Risk and Security Services at the launch of the product. TSTT provides the infrastructure used by security companies to operate their business, its entrance into the security services sector provides an excellent opportunity for the Company to increase its revenue streams and maintain its viability in a competitive telecommunications market. The provision of these two new services, Blink TV and Blink Vigilance are therefore two examples of how TSTT has created new opportunities for itself based on consumer needs and changes in the social environment. Threats One of the most significant threats faced by TSTT was that provided by its competitors in the mobile services market as a result of the deregulation of the telecommunications sector in 2006. As a consequence of the liberalisation of the market, Digicel, began offering mobile service which for the first time gave the population of Trinidad and Tobago a choice of wireless providers. The introduction of Digicel into the Sector was expected to remove substantial market share from TSTT which had previously enjoyed monopoly status. TSTT Financial Reports stated The extent of the threat posed to TSTT by its main competitor is reflected in the Companys financial results in the immediate aftermath of Digicels entry into the market. In the financial year 2006 to 2007, TSTT suffered a financial loss of TT $122 M as compared to the financial year 2005 to 2006 where it made a profit of $261 million. Likewise, FLOW, a Company that had traditionally provided only Cable TV service, became in May of 2008, the first Triple Playprovider of telecommunications services in Trinidad with its offering of Cable TV, Broadband and Landline Voice Services to the population at large. As a result of FLOWs strategic initiatives, TSTT is now faced with an additional threat to its revenue streams in the Broadband and Landline Voice sectors. PEST ANALYSIS TSTTs PEST analysis focuses on the following factors, Political, Economic, Social and Technological scan of the macro-environment in which the organisation operates. The political environment as it presently relates to TSTT is one of uncertainty. This has been mainly as a result of the change in government of Trinidad and Tobago on 24 May 2010 the board of directors resigned since they were politically appointed and to date no board has been appointed. This has result in the capital expenditure budget for the various departments not being past. To this extent certain activities have been at a stand-still such as the cut-over of new infrastructure in Penal, Fyzabad areas which would allow the company to provide a more efficient and reliable telephone service to the people living in these areas. TSTT has also been impacted by economic factors from the environment with the liberalisation of the telecommunications market TSTT has not given an increase in salary to its junior and senior staff workforce. Due to the liberalisation of the market as stated before this has resulted in TSTT loosing part its customer base to its competitor resulting in a decrease in the companys profit margins in 2005-2006 of TT$122m. TSTT has been a socially responsible organisation, sponsoring local sporting activities and teams, TSTT has been and still is the main sponsor for the Soca Warriors Trinidad and Tobagos national football team. Through its Employee Wellness Program various initiatives have been made available to employees such as Domestic and Substance Abuse Programs. Recently, due to the outbreak in the H1N1 virus TSTT has taken the initiative to bring-in at the various work locations, personnel from the Ministry of Health to immunize staff against the virus and other illnesses. Among the social and cultural events covered by TSTTs Employee Relations department are Thanksgiving prayer meetings at the end of the last year and start of the new-year, Employees calypso competition, secretarys day, Sports and Family day, Emancipation and Indian arrival day activities etc. These are undertaken to allow the various levels staff in this multi-cultural, racial country to interact as one and enjoy the social, cultural and sporting activities. It fosters a culture of trust, harmony and cooperation between the hierarchical levels in the organisation. These activities also encourage or motivate both customers and employees to buy-in to the policies of the company and encourage loyalty. Through the use of innovation, research and development TSTT has been able to develop new technologies which would allow it to maintain its competitive advantage in the face of competition. This can particularly be seen through the companys use of technology to penetrate new markets such as the provisioning of Internet Protocol Television and residential and business security and alarm systems. Industry Attractiveness In determining Industry Attractiveness, the issue of Competition must be taken into consideration, as this will have an impact on the threat of new entrants and competitive rivalry within the market from FLOW and Digicel. TSTT no longer enjoys being a monopoly but now has to share its market with other competitors. Buyers would also have more bargaining power since they have a wider variety from which to choose as a consequence of the liberalisation of the telecommunications market as a result consumers are more likely to purchase where they can get value for their money. TSTT also has to compete against substitute goods and services, for example customers may not purchase their mobile phones from TSTT but from its competitor. The customer may simple pay TSTT for the use of the service of being attached to its network, therefore the company loses on it sale of mobile phone. Suppliers of TSTT would also have bargaining power as to what price they charge you for their goods since they can sell the same goods to your competitors and it you want to maintain competitive advantage over your competitors you would want to enjoy first market advantage and market leadership by providing new and innovation technology to your customers before your competitors. (See Appendix B) STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS Stakeholder Analysis is necessary because it provides information indicating the level of influence and expectations of the various stakeholders within the environment. As it relates to the Companys (TSTT) relationship with its employees and the representative Union a great deal of mistrust exists between this group and Management. In addition during times of industrial unrest it is alleged that the Union is able to influence workers to either work-to-rule or down tools. With regards to the customers, if customers are not satisfied with the quality or price, the opening-up of the Telecommunications Sector could cause customers and have caused customers to migrate to other service providers. Customers feel that they can getting better service for their money have chosen to migrate to Digicel or FLOW where they believe they are getting better value for their money. The management group needs to understand, in addition to managing, emphasis needs to be placed on effective Leadership and to an extent leadership by example. Over the past seven years junior and senior staff employees have not received a salary increase while management level continue to be paid incentives on a yearly basis for meeting their set objectives. This has left employees feeling disenchanted and de-motivated with management. (See Appendix C) Assessment of TSTTs position Having assessed the SWOT elements that TSTT is faced with in its internal and external environment since the advent of competition, one may conclude that the organisation has been able to maintain its position as the dominant entity Trinidad and Tobago telecommunications sector. This has been facilitated by the leadership of the executive management team which has taken strategic initiatives such as the investment of over $700 million in new technology in order to address the weakness associated with the Companys aged plant. This investment has also given TSTT a competitive advantage in the IPTV and Security services market as the Company has exploited the opportunities in its external environment to create new revenue streams for itself. Porters five forces can be seen through the threat of potential entrants in this case FLOW and Digicel, since TSTT no longer exist in a monopolistic market customers have bargaining power and this was seen when TSTT had to reduce its prices to be more competitive. Suppliers in this case also bargaining power with more than one telecommunications company to sell mobile telephones so they are able to bargain as to which telecommunications company what to sell them and at what price. Competitive rivalry is evident when TSTT promotes it mobile phones at reduced prices and the competitor Digicel also reduces its prices in order to compete with TSTT. The financial results of TSTT since the liberalisation of the market therefore supports the proposition that the organisation has been able to manage the threats posed by its competitors as evidenced by its after tax profits since 2006. In this type of arrangement, emphasis is being placed on maintaining Strengths, exploring and analyzing Opportunities, improving or outsourcing Weaknesses and identifying, developing and implementing Plans to overcome Threats this is the strategic direction of the company. Conclusion Through strategic planning and implementation TSTT was successfully able to maintain its leadership position in the telecommunications market in Trinidad and Tobago in a liberalised, global market. The organisation was able to convert its weaknesses into strengths and threats in to opportunity to maintains competitive advantage. Though its leadership and strategic management, innovative strategies and technologies were developed allowing for training and development of staff thereby providing opportunities for staff to be promoted within the organisation.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Crically Evaluate the Claim That Infants Have an Innate Knowledge of Object Properties. Use Evidence to Support Your Argument

Critically evaluate the claim that infants have an innate knowledge of object properties. Use evidence to support your arguments. Object properties have been systematically associated with the Piagetian approach of cognitive development and in particular the sensorimotor period. Until the 1970’s, Piaget’s influential stance that knowledge of object properties is only learned from around nine months old had not been questioned.However, due to more contemporary studies there have been claims that not only do younger infants exhibit behaviours suggesting that Piaget’s assumptions may underestimate cognitive abilities but some studies have controversially suggested that newborns have shown to have a certain amount of innate knowledge. This has lead to claims that there are some innate or core cognitive abilities for dealing with object properties, in contrast to Piaget’s view that ‘humans do not start out as cognitive beings’ (Berk, 2009).It is im portant to state the significance of grasping the notion of object properties because according to Piaget this represents the start of symbolic thought or mental representation – an expression of intellectual behaviour (Davies & Houghton, 1991). However, this claim is a subject of dispute for investigators, who disagree on the degree of this inbuilt knowledge. This essay shall be using relevant research to critically evaluate the claim that infants have an innate knowledge of object properties, concentrating on the notion of object permanence.Piaget theorised that knowledge of object permanence does not begin until the coordination of secondary circular reaction substage of sensorimotor period. He provided evidence for his assumptions, such as obscuring an object from an infant using a hand and seeing whether the child would reach for the object. Piaget concluded that the lack of searching by the infant implied a lack of object permanence, but Bower (1971) criticised Piagetâ €™s use of search tasks because infants could be lacking the performance ability for reaching rather than competence to understand object permanence.Therefore, studies were conducted using visual methods, whereby the infants’ looking was used to measure object permanence (Bower et al, 1971, 1972) to address the flaw in Piaget’s method by bypassing the need for the infant to perform the reach. Bower (1971) conducted a study showing infants a moving object disappearing behind a screen, and the results suggest infants from four to six months old show evidence of object permanence and as early as eight weeks old in a few participants, thus strongly contradicting Piaget’s assumptions.In addition to this visual method, Baillargeon (1985; 1987) used habituation as it is concluded that infants spend longer looking at new stimuli, therefore infants are familiarised with it. Baillargeon and DeVos (1991) habituated infants to a small carrot, then a tall carrot moving s ide to side behind a screen, alternately. Violation-of-expectation test trials were conducted, whereby the screen that had previously hidden the carrots changed in colour and included a window. The infants were shown the small carrot trial which follows physical laws, and were then shown the tall carrot trial which violates physical laws.Results showed that infants as young as two and a half months looked longer at the tall carrot event than the short carrot event, suggesting that younger infants have some understanding of object properties. However, there have been criticisms of both the habituation technique and the violation-of-expectation-method. Bogartz (2000) is suspicious of the use of the habituation technique as he states that infants will react with interest to any novel stimuli. He also criticised the way the results were analysed separately, suggesting they should have been analysed together.Further, the violation-of-expectation method has been labelled as only measuring some sort of implicit understanding of object properties rather than the fully-conscious understanding that Piaget was referring to in his theory (Berk, 2009). Nevertheless, Baillargeon insists that the consistent findings from this and other studies use essential controls that aren’t included in opposing studies (Bogartz, Shinskey & Schilling, 2000), and also uphold that the findings can be generalised to lots of object related unexpected events (Berk, 2009).Interestingly though, some researchers do not halt at the suggestion that Piaget underestimated younger infants cognitive abilities, but instead refute Piaget’s assumption that ‘humans do not start out as cognitive beings’ (Berk, 2009) and in fact have some innate cognitive abilities. There have been suggestions that knowledge of object properties depends on visual information relating to perceptual abilities of the infant, addressed in a study by Valenza, Zulian and Leo (2005). They tested infantsâ €™ ability to recognise a correspondence between one version of a simple shape with another.Results showed infants recognised a correspondence more between a partly occluded shape and a non occluded shape than a non occluded shape and an unoccluded shape with a gap, implying that there may be some innate ability. The importance of the simplicity of the shapes used in Valenza et al’s study (2005) had been addressed by other researchers such as Kellman and Spelke (1983) who stated that the type of visual information used by younger infants differs from the visual information used by older children, therefore implying that there may be different thresholds of information needed for different ages (Johnson, 1995).A study was conducted using a rod and box display with additional motion cues on two and four month olds. Despite the first experiment showing that infants at two months old held no preference for the disjointed rod, when the proportion of the box occluding the rods was decreased the two month olds showed a preference for the broken rod display over the complete rod display, therefore suggesting that there may be an innate low level representation of object properties (Kellman & Spelke, 1983).This and further studies (Kamawata et al, 1999) lent support to Johnson’s (1995) threshold model where visual information must match the perceptual abilities of infants in order to show knowledge of continuous object properties along with attending abilities. However, some researchers take on a more reserved view, giving potential alternative explanations for the innate knowledge of object properties.For example, following on from certain studies using darkness to hide objects resulting in evidence that infants search in the darkness earlier than they search for objects hidden by an occluder (Bowers and Wishart, 1972), Shinskey and Munakata (2003) conducted a study comparing the two conditions. Infants were given toy and no-toy trials in both the da rkness and the occluder (a cloth) conditions. Results support the notion that infants are ore sensitive to searching for objects in darkness compared to objects hidden by an occluder. Researchers gave three potential explanations for this dissociation. Firstly, a means-end explanation was given, stating that they simply searched more in the dark because they don’t have the physical ability to retrieve the occluder, lending support to Piaget’s concept that the ability to problem-solve lays with means-end action sequences (Berk, 2009).Secondly, graded representations may explain why infants’ representations can resist an interference of darkness to allow reaching but the interference may be too severe when an object is occluded. The results also introduced the notion of interruption of a plan to reach for the object due to a one second delay before the infants’ arms were released which may have led to less searching on occluder trials (in addition to anothe r object in the way).The researchers seemed to conclude that this study has supported the concept of a genuine sensitivity to objects hidden in darkness and that the origin of this dissociation between an occluder and darkness lies with the complications of retrieval. However, another potential explanation could be linked to Piaget’s observation that when one object is placed on top of another the infant cannot distinguish one from the other, leading back to idea that it can be representatively complicated.On the whole, a large section of the research on knowledge of object properties conflict with Piaget’s assumptions. Findings show his theory underestimates the abilities of infants (Bower, 1971; 1972; Baillargeon, 1985; 1987; 1991), and although these studies are not free from criticisms (Bogartz, 2000), support of these findings is abundant, along with some controversial findings which suggest low level innate knowledge of object properties.Valanza, et al (2005) stu dy was supported by others (Kellman & Spelke, 1983; Kamawata et al, 1999) and the threshold model was proposed (Johnson, 1995). Nevertheless, other studies showing dissociations between abilities of searching for objects using darkness and occluders are less willing to settle for the explanation of innate knowledge and provide alternatives, including a means-end explanation, the notion of graded representations and interestingly the concept of interruption of a plan (Shinskey & Munakata, 2003).In conclusion, while there is convincing evidence that Piaget strongly underestimated the abilities of younger infants, the claim that infants have an innate knowledge of object properties remains questionable, as although evidence for it introduces some potentially interesting advances, there is simply not enough known, specifically into where the complications of the knowledge lies and if this were ascertained then a greater understanding could be reached. References Berk, L. E. (2006). Chil d Development (7th ed. . Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon Davies, R. & Houghton, P. (1991). Mastering Psychology, The MacMillan Press Ltd: London Kellman, P. J. & Spelke, E. R. (1983). Perception of partly occluded objects in infancy. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 483-524. Shinskey, J. L. , & Munakata, Y. (2003). Are infants in the dark about hidden objects? Developmental Science, 6(3), 273-282. Valenza, E. , Zulian, L. , & Leo, I. (2005). The role of perceptual skills in newborns' perception of partly occluded objects. Infancy, 8(1), 1-20.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Definition and Examples of Language Death

Language death is a  linguistic term for the end or extinction of a language. Also called language extinction. Language Extinction Distinctions are commonly drawn between an endangered language (one with few or no children learning the language) and an extinct language (one in which the last native speaker has died).   A Language Dies Every Two Weeks Linguist David Crystal has estimated that one language [is] dying out somewhere in the world, on average, every two weeks (By Hook or by Crook: A Journey in Search of English, 2008). Language Death Every 14 days a language dies. By 2100, more than half of the more than 7,000 languages spoken on Earth--many of them not yet recorded--may disappear, taking with them a wealth of knowledge about history, culture, the natural environment, and the human brain. (National Geographic Society, Enduring Voices Project)I am always sorry when any language is lost, because languages are the pedigree of nations. (Samuel Johnson, quoted by James Boswell in The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, 1785)Language death occurs in unstable bilingual or multilingual speech communities as a result of language shift from a regressive minority language to a dominant majority language. (Wolfgang Dressler, Language Death. 1988)Aboriginal Australia holds some of the worlds most endangered languages including Amurdag, which was believed to be extinct until a few years ago when linguists came across speaker Charlie Mangulda living in the Northern Territory.(Holly Bentley, Mind Your Language. The Guardian, Aug. 13, 2010) The Effects of a Dominant Language A language is said to be dead when no one speaks it any more. It may continue to have existence in recorded form, of course--traditionally in writing, more recently as part of a sound or video archive (and it does in a sense live on in this way)--but unless it has fluent speakers one would not talk of it as a living language. . . .The effects of a dominant language vary markedly in different parts of the world, as do attitudes towards it. In Australia, the presence of English has, directly or indirectly, caused great linguistic devastation, with 90% of languages moribund. But English is not the language which is dominant throughout Latin America: if languages are dying there, it is not through any fault of English. Moreover, the presence of a dominant language does not automatically result in a 90% extinction rate. Russian has long been dominant in the countries of the former USSR, but there the total destruction of local languages has been estimated to be only (sic) 50%.(David Cryst al, Language Death. Cambridge University Press, 2002) Aesthetic Loss The main loss when a language dies is not cultural but aesthetic. The click sounds in certain African languages are magnificent to hear. In many Amazonian languages, when you say something you have to specify, with a suffix, where you got the information. The Ket language of Siberia is so awesomely irregular as to seem a work of art.But let’s remember that this aesthetic delight is mainly savored by the outside observer, often a professional savorer like myself. Professional linguists or anthropologists are part of a distinct human minority. . . .At the end of the day, language death is, ironically, a symptom of people coming together. Globalization means hitherto isolated peoples migrating and sharing space. For them to do so and still maintain distinct languages across generations happens only amidst unusually tenacious self-isolation--such as that of the Amish--or brutal segregation. (Jews did not speak Yiddish in order to revel in their diversity but because they lived in an apartheid society.)(John McWhorter, The Cosmopolitan Tongue: The Universality of English. World Affairs Journal, Fall 2009) Steps to Preserve a Language [T]he best non-linguists can do, in North-America, towards preserving languages, dialects, vocabularies and the like is, among other possible actions, (French linguist Claude Hagà ¨ge, author of On the Death and Life of Languages, in Q and A: The Death of Languages. The New York Times, Dec. 16, 2009) Participating in associations which, in the US and Canada, work to obtain from local and national governments a recognition of the importance of Indian languages (prosecuted and led to quasi-extinction during the XIXth century) and cultures, such as those of the Algonquian, Athabaskan, Haida, Na-Dene, Nootkan, Penutian, Salishan, Tlingit communities, to name just a few;Participating in funding the creation of schools and the appointment and payment of competent teachers;Participating in the training of linguists and ethnologists belonging to Indian tribes, in order to foster the publication of grammars and dictionaries, which should also be financially helped;Acting in order to introduce the knowledge of Indian cultures as one of the important topics in American and Canadian TV and radio programs. An Endangered Language in Tabasco The language of Ayapaneco has been spoken in the land now known as Mexico for centuries. It has survived the Spanish conquest, seen off wars, revolutions, famines and floods. But now, like so many other indigenous languages, its at risk of extinction.There are just two people left who can speak it fluently--but they refuse to talk to each other. Manuel Segovia, 75, and Isidro Velazquez, 69, live 500 metres apart in the village of Ayapa in the tropical lowlands of the southern state of Tabasco. It is not clear whether there is a long-buried argument behind their mutual avoidance, but people who know them say they have never really enjoyed each others company.They dont have a lot in common, says Daniel Suslak, a linguistic anthropologist from Indiana University, who is involved with a project to produce a dictionary of Ayapaneco. Segovia, he says, can be a little prickly and Velazquez, who is more stoic, rarely likes to leave his home.The dictionary is part of a race against time to re vitalize the language before it is definitively too late. When I was a boy everybody spoke it, Segovia told the Guardian by phone. Its disappeared little by little, and now I suppose it might die with me. (Jo Tuckman, Language at Risk of Dying Out--Last Two Speakers Arent Talking. The Guardian, April 13, 2011)Those linguists racing to save dying languages--urging villagers to raise their children in the small and threatened language rather than the bigger national language--face criticism that they are unintentionally helping keep people impoverished by encouraging them to stay in a small-language ghetto. (Robert Lane Greene, You Are What You Speak. Delacorte, 2011)

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Introduction to Externalities

When making the claim that free, unregulated markets maximize the amount of value created for a society, economists either implicitly or explicitly assume that the actions and choices of producers and consumers in a market dont have any spillover effects onto third parties who are not directly involved in the market as a producer or a consumer. When this assumption is taken away, it no longer has to be the case that unregulated markets are value-maximizing, so its important to understand these spillover effects and their impacts on economic value. Economists call effects on those not involved in the market externalities, and they vary along two dimensions. First, externalities can be either negative or positive. Not surprisingly, negative externalities impose spillover costs on otherwise uninvolved parties, and positive externalities confer spillover benefits on otherwise uninvolved parties. (When analyzing externalities, its helpful to keep in mind that costs are just negative benefits and benefits are just negative costs.) Second, externalities can be either on production or consumption. In the case of an externality on production, the spillover effects occur when a product is physically produced. In the case of an externality on consumption, the spillover effects occur when a product is consumed. Combining these two dimensions gives four possibilities: Negative Externalities on Production Negative externalities on production occur when producing an item imposes a cost on those not directly involved in producing or consuming the item. For example, factory pollution is the quintessential negative externality on production, since the costs of pollution are felt by everyone and not just those who are producing and consuming the products that are causing the pollution. Positive Externalities on Production Positive externalities can occur during produciton such as when a popular food, such as cinnamon buns or candy, produces a desirable smell during manufacturing, releasing this positive externality to the nearby community. Another example would be adding jobs in an area with high unemployment can benefit the community putting more consumers with money to spend into that communitry  and also reducing the number of unemployed people there. Negative Externalities on Consumption Negative externalities on consumption occur when consuming an item actually imposes a cost on others. For example, the market for cigarettes has a negative externality on consumption because consuming cigarettes imposes a cost on others not involved in the market for cigarettes in the form of second-hand smoke. Positive Externalities on Consumption Because the presence of externalities makes unregulated markets inefficient, externalities can be viewed as a type of market failure. This market failure, at a fundamental level, arises because of a violation of the notion of well-defined property rights, which is, in fact, a requirement for free markets to function efficiently. This violation of property rights occurs because there are is no clear ownership of air, water, open spaces, and so on, even though society is affected by what happens to such entities. When negative externalities are present, taxes can actually make markets more efficient for society. When positive externalities are present, subsidies can make markets more efficient for society. These finds are in contrast with the conclusion that taxing or subsidizing well-functioning markets (where no externalities are present) reduces economic welfare.